Focus on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

AD/ADRD brain image

What is AD/ADRD?

Alzheimer's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias (AD/ADRD) refers to the most common forms of dementia. Dementia likely affects more than 5 million people in the U.S. and more than 47 million people worldwide. At this time, there are no known treatments to prevent or stop the progression of dementia. The toll on individuals, caregivers and society is enormous and will only increase as the population ages unless effective interventions are developed. NINDS collaborates with NIH’s National Institute on Aging (NIA), the lead NIH Institute for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research, to establish research priorities and fund biomedical research in AD as well as several Alzheimer’s disease-related dementias (ADRDs).

While AD is the most common dementia diagnosis, ADRDs share many cognitive and pathological features with and can be difficult to distinguish from AD. In fact, more often than not, patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease present with different mixtures of brain pathologies, complicating both the diagnosis, as well as the treatment.

The ADRDs include:

Going forward, NINDS and NIA will continue to partner in AD/ADRD research planning and implementation, and we urge the research community to join in our efforts to accelerate scientific progress toward reducing the enormous burden and cost of dementia.

Funding Opportunity Announcements

Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Concepts Planned for Fiscal Year 2023

We are excited to share with you the research concepts approved by NINDS Council for fiscal year 2023. Please note that this page with be updated periodically with links when funding opportunities are published. These are also announced via our email listserv (to join, please email

It is important to note that a cleared concept doesn’t definitively mean that an award mechanism or funding allocation is imminent or even going to happen. Nothing is official until FOAs are published in the NIH Guide.


Treatments for Lewy Body Dementias and Frontotemporal Degeneration - Exploratory Clinical Trial (U01 Clinical Trial Required) RFA-NS-22-056. This Funding Opportunity Announcement invites applications from investigators seeking to conduct exploratory clinical trials designed to test new treatments for patients with Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) or Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD). Applicants may propose to conduct either Phase I or Phase II clinical trials depending on the developmental stage of the potential therapeutic, but all trials must include patients with either LBD or FTD.

Functional Target Validation for Alzheimer's Disease-Related Dementias (ADRDs) (R61/R33 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-NS-22-055. This FOA invites applications that propose the comprehensive functional validation of newly identified therapeutic target candidates for ADRD. This FOA seeks to promote critical target validation approaches to help de-risk subsequent translational research and accelerate the advancement of novel therapies for ADRD.

Structural Biology of Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias (ADRDs) Proteinopathies (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-208. The purpose of this FOA is to continue to support studies that characterize the structure of protein aggregates found in an ADRD such as alpha-synuclein, Tau, TDP-43, TMEM106B, and FUS at a high, atomic-level resolution, using approaches such as cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), cryo-electron tomogragraphy (cryo-ET), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.


Training Award to Promote Cross-Training in the Fields of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease/Alzheimer’s Disease Related Dementias (AD/ADRD) (K18 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-NS-22-061. This funding opportunity encourages applications for short-term (1 year) mentored career enhancement awards to further understand TBI as a risk factor for AD/ADRD.


Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Prion-Like Aggregate Seeding, Propagation, and Neurotoxicity in AD/ADRD PAR-23-023. This purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to solicit applications that propose mechanistic studies in animal, cell culture, and/or human tissue models to elucidate the mechanisms by which prion-like processes in AD/ADRD are initiated, propagated, and ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and circuit dysfunction.

AD/ADRD, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Social Determinants of Health Ancillary Studies of Existing Longitudinal Cohorts (R01 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-221. The purpose of this FOA is to support studies that expand the use of existing data resources to drive new discoveries that can lead to better understanding of the relationship between early life social determinants of health, adverse childhood experiences, AD/ADRD biomarkers, and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia, especially in populations experiencing health disparities.

Early-Stage Therapy Development for ADRD RFA-NS-22-059. This FOA encourages early-stage development of novel small molecule or biologic therapeutics for NINDS mission-relevant ADRD. This FOA covers four stages of early therapy discovery/development with each stage gated by go/no-go milestones. Applicants may enter the program at the stage appropriate to their research. The R61 phase supports preparatory research stages 1 -3: 1) development of in vitro and/or ex vivo assays that can support therapeutic screening efforts, 2) screening efforts to identify and characterize potential therapeutic agents, and 3) therapeutic optimization, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. The R33 phase supports stage 4, in vivo efficacy studies in an animal model of disease. This FOA supports research to enable competitive follow-on applications that meet the entry criteria for the Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network, Blueprint Biologics, or other similar later-stage translational programs.

Pragmatic Clinical Trials in Community Settings to Decrease or Prevent VCID Outcomes, Including in Populations that Experience Health Disparities (U01 Clinical Trial Required) RFA-NS-23-001. The purpose of this FOA is to solicit applications for pragmatic clinical trials to decrease or prevent negative clinical outcomes due to VCID, including locally representative NIH defined populations that experience health disparities in dementia.

Postmortem Neuropathology, Cellular, and Molecular Analyses, Including Ex-Vivo Imaging, to Assess the Significance of Human TBI and VCID AD/ADRD-Relevant Imaging and Clinical Findings During Life - Promote in-depth, post-mortem pathological examination and analysis, in combination with analysis of cellular, molecular, and pre- and post-mortem MRI data, of brain lesions resulting from TBI and/or dysfunctional vasculature or vascular processes, such as white matter hyperintensities, infarcts (including cortical microinfarcts), and microbleeds as they relate to postmortem pathology of AD/ADRD.

Impact of the Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis on Alzheimer's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease-Related Dementias (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-211. This FOA invites applications for basic and translational research on the impact of the microbiome on an AD/ADRD.

Connecting Machine Readable Digital Human AD/ADRD Neuropathological Library Platforms for Advanced Analytics (U24 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-NS-22-062. The purpose of this AD/ADRD initiative is to 1) develop tools, standards, and an Open-source software platform that enables a federated (multiple data repository sites with a single access portal) approach for data sharing and analysis of human digital neuropathological slides and 2) perform software testing to validate and verify that the software and tools developed can be used to perform multisite neuropathological analyses using a federated approach. slides.

Optimization of Genome Editing Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias RFA-NS-23-017. This FOA supports the optimization of promising genome editing-based therapeutic leads for AD/ADRD, towards IND-enabling studies.

Blood Brain Barrier Response to Antibodies Targeting Beta-Amyloid (R01 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-235. This FOA solicits applications designed to increase understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms that can be targeted to protect the blood-brain barrier, and thus brain blood vessels, during therapeutic interventions that target beta-amyloid.


Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): COVID-19 Related Revisions to NINDS ADRD Human Subjects Cooperative Agreement Programs NOT-NS-23-001. This NINDS Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) invites applications for administrative supplements to address staffing shortages that are significantly impacting the recruitment of participants for NINDS administered Alzheimer's Disease / Alzheimer's Disease and RelaTed Dementias (AD/ADRD) clinical research studies.


Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Concepts for Fiscal Year 2022



Biomarkers for the Lewy Body Dementias RFA-NS-22-001. The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to support hypothesis-driven clinical research applications that are focused on discovering novel diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic biomarkers for the Lewy Body Dementias (LBD). Biomarker research must be conducted in patients with LBD, must follow Parkinson's Disease Biomarker Program (PDBP) protocols for clinical assessment and biospecimen collection, and must be broadly shareable through the PDBP repositories. The deadline to submit applications has passed.

Clinical and Biological Measures of TBI-related Dementia Including Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-024. Investigation of biological and clinical measures of TBI-related and CTE-related progressive neurodegeneration and neurocognitive decline associated with increased risk for dementia. The deadline to submit applications has passed.

Detecting Cognitive Impairment, Including Dementia, in Primary Care and Other Everyday Clinical Settings for the General Public and Health Equity, Pragmatic Clinical Trials (U01 Clinical Trial Required) RFA-NS-22-009. The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to invite pragmatic clinical trial applications to test paradigms designed to address the unmet need to detect cognitive impairment, including dementia, in large and diverse populations seen in primary care across the United States when a patient, relative, or care provider indicates concern. The deadline to submit applications has passed.


NINDS Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias (AD/ADRD) Advanced Postdoctoral Career Transition Award to Promote Diversity (K99/R00 Independent Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-022. The purpose of this program is to support a cohort of new and talented, independent investigators from diverse backgrounds (e.g. see NOT-OD-20-031) conducting AD/ADRD research.

NINDS Institutional AD/ADRD Research Training Program PAR-22-021. The purpose of this FOA is to provide support for institutional research training programs in Alzheimer’s Disease/Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias (AD/ADRD).


Role of Astrocytes in Degeneration of the Neurovascular Unit PAR-22-027. This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) invites basic disease-related research to address a gap in the basic research on the mechanisms of reactive astrogliosis in degeneration of the neurovascular unit that contributes to cognitive impairment and dementia. The deadline to submit applications is February 4, 2022.

Prodromal Synaptic and Circuit Changes that Contribute to AD/ADRD Onset and Progression PAR-22-059. The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to invite applications that use models to investigate and understand, from a mechanistic standpoint, the earliest synaptic, circuit and network changes that contribute to AD/ADRD disease onset and pathogenesis. Submission deadline is February 4, 2022.

Longitudinal Single Cell Characterization of ADRD Postmortem Tissue (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-029. The purpose of this funding opportunity is to support projects to identify cellular changes in ADRD post-mortem brain tissue across disease progression. The deadline to submit applications has passed.

Multi-Disciplinary Collaborations to Understand Mechanisms of Systemic Immune Signaling and Inflammation in ADRD and its Progression (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-023. Recent findings have raised the hypothesis that systemic immune responses could play direct or indirect roles in brain neurodegeneration leading to AD/ADRD and have been significantly less studied than immune responses confined exclusively to within the brain parenchyma. The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to support partnerships and new collaborations between neuroscientists and immunologists to expand the research base in this area with the long-term goal of bringing more immunology expertise into the AD/ADRD field and to support further work in this area through investigator-initiated and other mechanisms. The deadline to submit applications has passed.

Leveraging Existing Data Resources for Computational Model and Tool Development to Discover Novel Candidate Mechanisms and Biomarkers for ADRD (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) RFA-NS-22-006. The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement is to expand the use of existing ADRD data resources to drive, via computational model development and dissemination, new discoveries that can lead to better understanding of mechanisms, clinical risk assessment and outcomes, and to identify novel candidate biomarkers for ADRD. The deadline to submit applications has passed.

Clinical Relevance of the Linkage between Environmental Toxicant Exposures and Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-048. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) supports mechanistic and early translational research focused on a more rigorous in-depth examination of the potential interactions of environmental toxins with genetic and non-genetic molecular targets known to influence. Submission deadline is March 11, 2022.

Selectively Target Technology Development to Understand How Changes or Dysfunction at the Capillary, Arterioles, and Small Lymphatic Vessels Level Can Have Long-term Impact on AD/ADRD (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-22-026. The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to solicit studies that will advance the mechanistic understanding of small vessel vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) through the development of new technologies and innovative methods that enable the imaging and/or functional assessment of the small blood and lymphatic vessels and perivascular spaces of the brain. The deadline to submit applications has passed.


Postmortem Pathology, Cellular, and Molecular Analyses to Determine the Significance of White Matter Lesions and other Imaging Findings of Presumed Vascular Origin During Life NOT-NS-22-001. This NINDS Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) announces the availability of administrative supplements to support examination of human in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of presumed vascular origin (vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia, VCID) as they relate to post-mortem pathology of AD/ADRD. Of interest are brain lesions resulting from dysfunctional vasculature or vascular processes, such as white matter hyperintensities, infarcts (including cortical microinfarcts), and microbleeds, along with cellular, molecular, and in-depth post-mortem imaging and pathological data analysis. Expires April 2, 2022

Adding TBI Assessments to AD/ADRD Cohorts NOT-NS-22-022. These administrative supplements will provide funding to existing NINDS-funded AD/ADRD relevant cohort studies to support the inclusion/addition of NINDS Common Data Elements (CDEs) for life-time exposure to TBI (Ohio State University TBI Identification Form), other FITBIR CDE for life-time TBI exposure measures (e.g. FITBIR Injury History Form) or Brain Injury Screening Questionnaire (BISQ), and other relevant TBI-related NINDS CDEs to current clinical assessment batteries. Data will be available to better understand the prevalence of TBI history in these populations and could be hypothesis generating for studying the pathophysiology underlying TBI as a risk factor for AD/ADRDs. The deadline to submit applications has passed.




Extended Payline for AD/ADRD Investigator-initiated Research


NINDS and NIA use the same payline for investigator initiated (Parent) R01 and R21 (for NINDS applications, PA-21-219).



NIH Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories


Research/Disease Areas* FY 2018
FY 2019
FY 2020
FY 2021
FY 2022
Alzheimer's Disease Including
Alzheimer's Disease Related
Dementias (AD/ADRD)
$1,911 $2,398 $2,869 $3,194 $3,287
Alzheimer's Disease $1,789 $2,240 $2,683 $2,994 $3,079
Frontotemporal Dementia $94 $158 $166 $169 $176
Lewy Body Dementia $38 $66 $84 $93 $96
Vascular Cognitive Impairment/Dementia $259 $299 $362 $368 $382

*Dollars in millions and rounded


Resources and Tools


Rod Corriveau | Program Director

Sara Dodson | Senior Health Science Policy Analyst

Keith Whitaker | Scientific Project Manager

Funding Opportunities 

Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias Funding Opportunities

News & Events

New and Upcoming Opportunities for Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Dementias (ADRD) Research in Fiscal Year 2019

A new culprit tangles with ApoE4 in Alzheimer’s disease

Designer compound may untangle damage leading to some dementias

ADRD Summit 2022

Alzheimer's Association International Conference

NAPA Council



Related Topics 

HHS Alzheimer Website
The US federal government's main webpage for information on Alzheimer's disease.

HHS sitio web de enfermedad de Alzheimer y las demencias relacionadas
La página web principal del gobierno federal de EE. UU. para obtener información sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

ADRD Prioritized Research Milestones
Research priorities for ADRD are identified and updated through periodic NIH-hosted ADRD Summits.

International Alzheimer's and Related Dementias Research Portfolio
IADRP reports categories of funded research supported by public and private organizations both in the US and abroad all categorized using the Common Alzheimer's and Related Dementias Research Ontology (CADRO)

National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center
A national database of standardized clinical and neuropathological research data (NIA/NIH). The standardized data and neuropathology data are collected at the NIA funded Alzheimer’s Disease Centers.

Alzheimer’s Disease Research Implementation Milestone Database
Tool for tracking funding initiatives and activities aimed at achieving the Research Milestones that were developed from NIH-hosted AD and ADRD Summits. 

National Cell Repository for Alzheimer's Disease (NCRAD)
NCRAD is an NIA funded biorepository for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias studies.  NCRAD banks a variety of biospecimens including DNA, RNA, plasma, serum, CSF, LCLs, and PBMCs

The NINDS Human Cell and Data Repository
Available cell sources currently include fibroblasts and/or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

NINDS Biosend
BioSEND currently banks a variety of biospecimens including DNA, plasma, serum, RNA, CSF, and saliva from 16 different biomarker studies that focus on neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

NINDS Human Genetics Resource Center
Housing over  DNA samples and cell lines.

Alzheimer's Disease Preclinical Efficacy Database (AlzPED)
AlzPED serves as a knowledge platform for the dissemination of data and analysis in a manner that promotes efficiency, transparency, reproducibility and accuracy of research aimed at preclinical therapy development for AD.

Parkinson’s Disease Biomarkers Program (PDBP)
The PDBP facilitates biomarker discovery and validation efforts, leveraging broadly shared clinical and biospecimen data, with the overarching goal of improving clinical trial design and therapeutic development in PD, Lewy Body Dementia (LBD), and Parkinsonisms.

NIH NeuroBioBank
Since 2013, the NIH NeuroBioBank has catalyzed scientific discovery through the centralization of resources aimed at the collection and distribution of human post-mortem brain tissue.

iPSC Neurodegenerative Disease Initiative
We will create a foundational repository of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines using CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic engineering. Our target goals are 132 variants across 72 AD/ADRD genes, 8 of which are known AD-related genes, 15 are genes linked to Dementia with Lewy Bodies/Parkinson’s Disease, 28 genes are associated with Frontotemporal Dementia/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and 21 are genes associated with other neurodegenerative disorders.