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What is neurofibromatosis?

Neurofibromatosis is not a single medical disorder. It refers to three different conditions involving the development of tumors that may affect the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves that send signals between the brain and spinal cord and all other parts of the body. Most tumors are non-cancerous (benign), although some may become cancerous (malignant). 

The conditions are:

  1. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as von Recklinghausen disease
  2. Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)
  3. Schwannomatosis (SWN)

Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is the most common of the three conditions. Although many people with NF1 inherit the gene that causes the condition, between 30 and 50 percent of cases arise from a spontaneous genetic mutation in the NF1 gene. Once this mutation has occurred, the abnormal gene can be inherited. Each child of an affected parent has a 50 percent chance of inheriting the gene mutation.

Children and adults with NF1 can have a variety of symptoms and medical problems that can change across a lifespan. Most people with NF1 have an average life expectancy. Because many of the other clinical features of NF1 develop as an individual ages, getting the correct diagnosis may take several years.

To diagnose NF1, a doctor looks for some of the following:

  • Six or more flat, light brown spots on the skin (“café au lait” spots), which are the most common feature of NF1. These multiple birthmarks measure more than five millimeters in diameter in children or more than 15 millimeters across in adolescents and adults. They are seen at birth or develop during the first few years of life. Café-au-lait spots are not dangerous but indicate the possible presence of an NF1 gene change in the person. These skin marks also occur in other conditions, such as Legius syndrome, a genetic condition that affects how cells in the body communicate.
  • Two or more soft, pea-sized bumps involving the skin (cutaneous neurofibromas), or one larger neurofibroma that involves multiple nerves (plexiform neurofibroma). Neurofibromas are tumors that originate from nerve cells. Plexiform neurofibromas are nerve-associated tumors involving nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. They can be present at birth or may not become noticeable for many years. Although some cutaneous neurofibromas arise in childhood, most start appearing during or after the teenage years.
  • Freckling in the armpits or the groin. This usually appears by 3 to 5 years of age. Freckles are similar in appearance to café-au-lait spots but are smaller in size. Freckling can occur in other conditions, but not with the other symptoms and concerns of NF1.
  • Two or more growths on the iris of the eye (known as Lisch nodules or iris hamartomas). These nodules are harmless, not typically present until adolescence, do not affect vision, and do not require monitoring or treatment.
  • A tumor of the optic pathway (optic pathway glioma). These tumors typically first appear by age 6, rarely in late childhood and adolescence, and almost never in adults. Although they can affect vision, most do not become symptomatic.
  • Bone deformities. Abnormal development of the eye socket (sphenoid) or the tibia (one of the long bones of the shin).
  • A parent, sibling, or child with NF1.

Additional signs and symptoms of NF1 include:

  • Children with NF1 are usually shorter than average and have larger heads.
  • Cardiovascular complications, such as congenital heart defects, high blood pressure (hypertension), and constricted, blocked, or damaged blood vessels.
  • Poor visuospatial skills and poor performance on academic achievement tests, including those that measure reading and math skills. 
  • Behavioral challenges, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social skills, are commonly seen in children with NF1. 
  • Although common in all people, headaches, pain, and seizures happen more often in people with NF1.
  • Tumors that may become cancerous. An estimated 10 percent of plexiform neurofibromas may become malignant, requiring aggressive treatment. Cutaneous neurofibromas are not known to become malignant.
  • Malignant glioma is a type of tumor that can occur (although rarely) in adults with NF1.
  • Adult young women with NF1 are at a higher risk for breast cancer arising before the age of 50 years than women in the general public.
  • There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and neuroendocrine tumors, like pheochromocytoma. There also is an increased incidence of benign nerve tumors called glomus tumors.
  • Scoliosis, or curvature of the spine, can be more common and aggressive in people with NF1.

Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is less common than NF1. Approximately 50 percent of affected people inherit the gene (familial); in others, however, the condition is caused by a spontaneous genetic mutation in the NF2 gene. Each child of an affected parent has a 50 percent chance inheriting the abnormal NF2 gene.  

Signs and symptoms of NF2 result from the development of:

  • Benign, slow-growing tumors affecting the cranial, spinal, and peripheral nerves, as well as the covering of the brain and spinal cord (called the meninges).
    • Schwannomas are tumors made up of Schwann cells, or the cells that produce the myelin that covers and protects peripheral nerves throughout the body. They often occur on the eighth cranial nerve, which has two branches: The acoustic branch carries the signals for hearing to the brain and the vestibular branch carries signals for sense of position and balance. Vestibular schwannomas (also known as acoustic neuromas) are the most recognized form of schwannoma in people with NF2, but schwannomas can involve any of the cranial or peripheral nerves in someone with NF2. Schwannomas also can occur in the skin and appear as bumps under the skin or on the skin surface. Most tumors are benign, although, very rarely, they may become cancerous. Schwannomas may or may not progress over time and many never require treatment.
    • Meningioma is the second most common tumor type in people who have NF2. Meningiomas form in the tissue covering that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. People with NF2 have both a higher rate of meningiomas than the general population and can develop multiple meningiomas within the skull and along the spinal column.
    • Ependymoma tumors occur more frequently in people with NF2 than in the general population. Ependymomas arise within the spinal cord (as opposed to on the surface) and arebenign. In many individuals, these tumors prooduce or show no symptoms.
  • People with NF2 may develop vision problems like cataracts at an earlier age or have changes in the retina that can affect vision.
  • Individuals with NF2 may develop peripheral neuropathy, or problems with nerve function, usually numbness and weakness on both sides of the body (with or without muscle loss) in the arms and legs.

While teenagers and adults often are first seen for hearing and balance problems, young children with NF2 more commonly seek initial medical attention due to vision problems and meningiomas.

Signs of NF2 may be present in childhood but can be overlooked, especially in children who do not have a family history of NF2. Children are often first seen by a doctor because of schwannomas in the skin, vision loss from retinal abnormalities or tumors, seizures, or weakness related to spinal cord compression. More commonly, symptoms of NF2 are first noticed in the second decade of life.

The most common first symptom is hearing loss or ringing in the ears (tinnitus) related to vestibular schwannomas. Less often, the first visit to a doctor will be because of disturbances in balance, visual impairment, focal weakness in an arm or leg, seizures, or skin tumors.

To diagnose NF2, a doctor will look for the following:

  • Vestibular schwannomas
  • A parent, sibling, or child with NF2

They will also look for a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (on one side of the body) before age 30; or any of the following:

  • Ependymoma
  • Meningioma
  • Schwannoma of non-vestibular nerves
  • Juvenile cataract or retinal abnormalities

Schwannomatosis (SWN) is the rarest form of the three conditions and is genetically and clinically distinct from NF1 and NF2. In many cases, mutation of the SMARCB or LZTR1 genes is associated with the disease; however, the genetic cause of SWN in some people is unknown.

Signs and symptoms of SWN significantly overlap with those of NF2 since they result from the development of slow-growing schwannomas of the cranial, spinal, and peripheral nerves and in some cases meningiomas of the brain and spinal cord. About one-third of individuals with schwannomatosis have tumors limited to a single part of the body, such as an arm, leg, or a segment of the spine. Some people develop many tumors, while others develop only a few. Schwannomas or meningiomas in the setting of schwannomatosis sometimes show no symptoms.

Other symptoms of SWN a doctor may look for are:

  • Chronic pain anywhere on the body. Chronic pain affects many people with SWN; this pain may or may not be associated with a specific schwannoma
  • Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the fingers and toes and/or loss of muscle function

Who is more likely to get neurofibromatosis?

Neurofibromatosis occurs in both biological sexes and in all races and ethnic groups. Why tumors develop in these conditions isn't completely known, but it appears to be caused in part by mutations in genes that play key roles in suppressing growth in nervous system cells. These mutations keep the genes—identified as NF1, NF2, SMARCB1, and LZTR1—from making normal proteins that control the ability of the cells to function properly. Without the normal function of these proteins, cell growth increases, leading to the formation of tumors.

How is neurofibromatosis diagnosed and treated?

Diagnosing neurofibromatosis

It may be impossible to distinguish someone with NF2 from SWN based on clinical features alone. Genetic testing may be needed to correctly diagnose individuals with features of these conditions who lack a known family history or bilateral vestibular schwannomas (those that occur on both sides of the body). Genetic testing can be useful in some situations, such as for prenatal testing or when the clinical diagnosis is inconclusive. 

Detailed imaging of the brain and spinal cord by MRI are necessary and additional imaging based on symptoms may reveal schwannomas on peripheral nerves.

Treating neurofibromatosis

NF1 cannot be cured, but treatments can help manage signs and symptoms. Many people with NF1 will not require any prolonged treatment for any manifestation (disease signs or development) during their lives. People with NF1 should be evaluated periodically by an NF1 specialist, even if they are not experiencing symptoms, to evaluate for signs or symptoms that may indicate a need for treatment and to provide reassurance that treatment is not needed when appropriate.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved selumetinib (Koselugo) as a treatment for children ages 2 years and older with NF1. The drug helps to stop tumor cells from growing.

Surgery may be used to remove tumors that develop symptoms or are of concern for cancer, as well as for tumors that cause significant discomfort. Several surgical options exist for many of the manifestations of NF1, but there is no general agreement among doctors about when surgery should be performed, or which surgical option is best. Some bone malformations, such as scoliosis, can be corrected surgically or by stabilizing the spine with a brace. Some malformations that affect blood vessels can be successfully addressed with surgery or non-surgical procedures.

Chemotherapy may be used to treat optic pathway or other brain gliomas. The drug selumetinib (Koselugo®) has been approved by the FDA to treat children older than 2 years of age who have symptoms but inoperable plexiform neurofibromas. Chemotherapy regimens are a core part of treating cancers that may arise in the setting of NF1, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and breast cancer.

Treatments for other conditions associated with NF1 are aimed at controlling or relieving symptoms. Headache and seizures are treated with medications. Because children with NF1 have a higher-than-average risk for a variety of learning disabilities, ADHD, motor delays, and autism, they should be evaluated by a care team knowledgeable in NF1, and may be advised to have formal neuropsychological assessments to assist in creating individualized educational plans for school.

NF2 is best managed at a specialty clinic with an initial screening and annual follow-up evaluations (more frequent if the disease is severe). Improved diagnostic technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can reveal tumors of the vestibular nerve as small as a few millimeters in diameter. Vestibular schwannomas grow slowly, but they can grow large enough to engulf one of the eight cranial nerves as well as cause brain stem compression and damage to surrounding cranial nerves.

Surgical options depend on tumor size and the extent of hearing loss. There is no general agreement among doctors about when surgery should be performed or which surgical option is best. Individuals considering surgery should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of all options to determine which treatment is right for them.

There is no currently accepted medical treatment or drug for schwannomatosis. Surgery may help some people with growing tumors or symptoms that are directly referred to individual schwannomas. However, the potential risk of nerve damage must be weighed carefully against potential benefits of surgery.

What are the latest updates on neurofibromatosis?

The mission of the National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to seek fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system and use that knowledge to reduce the burden of neurological disease. NINDS, a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts and supports research aimed at understanding normal and abnormal development of the brain and nervous system, as well as clinical trials to improve the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders, including NF. Other NIH institutes, the Department of Defense, and private foundations have provided critical support for NF research and clinical trials.

Current basic and clinical research is not only aimed at understanding how genetic defects cause the diverse conditions and medical problems encountered people with NF, but also how to predict which clinical features will arise in any given person (personalized or precision medicine). In addition, studies in NF1, NF2, and SWN have revealed numerous important insights for investigators working in other fields, including brain cancer, sarcoma, autism, learning disabilities, nerve regeneration, chronic pain, and targeted therapies.

Genetic studies

The gene for NF1 is located on chromosome 17. The NF1 gene makes a protein called neurofibromin, which regulates cell division in the nervous system and functions as a kind of molecular brake to keep cells from growing out of control. Ongoing NINDS-sponsored research continues to discover additional genes and molecular pathways that may play a role in NF-related tumor suppression or growth. Continuing research is starting to reveal how this novel family of growth regulators controls how and where tumors form and grow, which may lead to the development of new drugs and therapies for NF.

Clinical trials

NINDS supports clinical trials aimed at understanding tumor growth and cognitive impairments in children, including:

  • Studying the natural history of tumors in NF2 can help scientists determine possible factors that may regulate their growth. NINDS-supported researchers are using a variety of tests, including diagnostic imaging, eye examinations, hearing and balance tests, neurologic examinations, blood and genetic testing, and quality of life assessments to characterize the impact of NF2 on individuals and better understand disease progression.
  • NINDS supports clinical trials involving a large group of children with NF1 to find associations between brain abnormalities and specific cognitive disabilities. Finding these links could help doctors anticipate cognitive impairments and inform early intervention programs.

NINDS also encourages research to develop improved methods to diagnose the neurofibromatoses and identify factors that contribute to the wide variations of symptoms and severity of the disorders.

Several options have been tested or are under investigation for treating NF tumors. Ongoing clinical studies on drugs that block the enzyme mitogen-activated protein kinase (that affects how some cells grow and develop) show great promise in treating NF1-associated tumors, especially in children. Because schwannomas are particularly hard to treat tumors, NINDS researchers are developing and testing a new treatment option, which uses a virus to kill tumor cells. Researchers are also testing chemotherapy drugs as treatments for NF2-related schwannomas.

Learn About Clinical Trials
Clinical trials are studies that allow us to learn more about disorders and improve care. They can help connect patients with new and upcoming treatment options.

How can I or my loved one help improve care for people with neurofibromatosis?

Consider participating in a clinical trial so clinicians and scientists can learn more about NF and related disorders. Clinical research uses human volunteers to help researchers learn more about a disorder and perhaps find better ways to safely detect, treat, or prevent disease.

All types of volunteers are needed—those who are healthy or may have an illness or disease—of all different ages, sexes, races, and ethnicities to ensure that study results apply to as many people as possible, and that treatments will be safe and effective for everyone who will use them.

For information about participating in clinical research visit NIH Clinical Research Trials and You. Learn about clinical trials currently looking for people with NF at

Donate brain tissue

NINDS supports the Human Brain and Spinal Fluid Resource Center. This bank supplies investigators around the world with tissue from individuals with neurological and other disorders. Tissue from those with NF1, NF2, or Schwannomatosis is needed to help scientists study these disorders more effectively. 

Where can I find more information about neurofibromatosis?

Information may be available from the following organizations and resources:

Order publications from the NINDS Catalog
The NINDS Publication Catalog offers printed materials on neurological disorders for patients, health professionals, and the general public. All materials are free of charge, and a downloadable PDF version is also available for most publications.