On this page

What is kuru?

Kuru is a rare and fatal brain disorder that occurred at epidemic levels from the 1950s to 1960s among the Fore people in the highlands of New Guinea. The disease was the result of the practice of ritualistic cannibalism among the Fore, in which relatives prepared and consumed the tissues (including brain) of deceased family members. Brain tissue from individuals with kuru was highly infectious, and the disease was transmitted either through eating or by contact with open sores or wounds. Kuru is the Fore word for shiver.

Government discouragement of the practice of cannibalism led to a continuing decline in the disease, which has now mostly disappeared.

Kuru belongs to a class of infectious diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases. The hallmark of a TSE disease is misshapen protein molecules that clump together and accumulate in brain tissue. Scientists believe that misshapen prion proteins have the ability to change their shape and cause other proteins of the same type to also change shape.

Other TSEs include:

  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and fatal familial insomnia in humans
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (also known as "mad cow" disease)
  • Scrapie in sheep and goats
  • Chronic wasting disease in deer and elk

There were no treatments that could control or cure kuru, other than discouraging the practice of cannibalism. Currently, there are no cures or treatments for any of the other TSE diseases.

Similar to other the TSEs, kuru has a long incubation period; it was years or even decades before an infected person showed symptoms. Because kuru mainly affected the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordination, the first symptoms were usually an unsteady gait, tremors, and slurred speech. Unlike most of the other TSEs, dementia was either minimal or absent. Mood changes were often present. Eventually, individuals became unable to stand or eat, and they died in a comatose state from six to 12 months after the first appearance of symptoms.

Where can I find more information about kuru?

The following organizations and resources may provide information on kuru and other TSEs:

Learn about related topics

Order publications from the NINDS Catalog
The NINDS Publication Catalog offers printed materials on neurological disorders for patients, health professionals, and the general public. All materials are free of charge, and a downloadable PDF version is also available for most publications.