Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy Information Page

Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy Information Page


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What research is being done?

Researchers continue to search for the defective gene that causes INAD in hopes of developing drugs that can stop the disease. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to INAD in its laboratories at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure disorders such as INAD. 

Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus
Degenerative Nerve Disorders

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What research is being done?

Researchers continue to search for the defective gene that causes INAD in hopes of developing drugs that can stop the disease. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to INAD in its laboratories at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure disorders such as INAD. 

Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus
Degenerative Nerve Disorders

Researchers continue to search for the defective gene that causes INAD in hopes of developing drugs that can stop the disease. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to INAD in its laboratories at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure disorders such as INAD. 

Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus
Degenerative Nerve Disorders


Definition
Definition
Treatment
Treatment
Prognosis
Prognosis
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
Organizations
Organizations
Publications
Publications
Definition
Definition

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare inherited neurological disorder. It affects axons, the part of a nerve cell that carries messages from the brain to other parts of the body, and causes progressive loss of vision, muscular control, and mental skills. While the basic genetic and metabolic causes are unknown, INAD is the result of an abnormal build-up of toxic substances in nerves that communicate with muscles, skin, and the conjunctive tissue around the eyes.  Symptoms usually begin within the first 2 years of life, with the loss of head control and the ability to sit, crawl, or walk, accompanied by deterioration in vision and speech.  Some children may have seizures.  Distinctive facial deformities may be present at birth, including a prominent forehead, crossed eyes, an unusually small nose or jaw, and large, low-set ears.  INAD is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that both parents must be carriers of the defective gene that causes INAD to pass it on to their child. Electrophysiology (nerve conduction velocities) may be helpful for diagnosis, although diagnosis is usually confirmed by tissue biopsy of skin, rectum, nerve or conjunctive tissue to confirm the presence of characteristic swellings (spheroid bodies) in the nerve axons. 

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Definition

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare inherited neurological disorder. It affects axons, the part of a nerve cell that carries messages from the brain to other parts of the body, and causes progressive loss of vision, muscular control, and mental skills. While the basic genetic and metabolic causes are unknown, INAD is the result of an abnormal build-up of toxic substances in nerves that communicate with muscles, skin, and the conjunctive tissue around the eyes.  Symptoms usually begin within the first 2 years of life, with the loss of head control and the ability to sit, crawl, or walk, accompanied by deterioration in vision and speech.  Some children may have seizures.  Distinctive facial deformities may be present at birth, including a prominent forehead, crossed eyes, an unusually small nose or jaw, and large, low-set ears.  INAD is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that both parents must be carriers of the defective gene that causes INAD to pass it on to their child. Electrophysiology (nerve conduction velocities) may be helpful for diagnosis, although diagnosis is usually confirmed by tissue biopsy of skin, rectum, nerve or conjunctive tissue to confirm the presence of characteristic swellings (spheroid bodies) in the nerve axons. 

Treatment
Treatment

There is no cure for INAD and no treatment that can stop the progress of the disease. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Doctors can prescribe medications for pain relief and sedation. Physiotherapists and other physical therapists can teach parents and caregivers how to position and seat their child, and to exercise arms and legs to maintain comfort. 

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Treatment

There is no cure for INAD and no treatment that can stop the progress of the disease. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Doctors can prescribe medications for pain relief and sedation. Physiotherapists and other physical therapists can teach parents and caregivers how to position and seat their child, and to exercise arms and legs to maintain comfort. 

Definition
Definition

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare inherited neurological disorder. It affects axons, the part of a nerve cell that carries messages from the brain to other parts of the body, and causes progressive loss of vision, muscular control, and mental skills. While the basic genetic and metabolic causes are unknown, INAD is the result of an abnormal build-up of toxic substances in nerves that communicate with muscles, skin, and the conjunctive tissue around the eyes.  Symptoms usually begin within the first 2 years of life, with the loss of head control and the ability to sit, crawl, or walk, accompanied by deterioration in vision and speech.  Some children may have seizures.  Distinctive facial deformities may be present at birth, including a prominent forehead, crossed eyes, an unusually small nose or jaw, and large, low-set ears.  INAD is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that both parents must be carriers of the defective gene that causes INAD to pass it on to their child. Electrophysiology (nerve conduction velocities) may be helpful for diagnosis, although diagnosis is usually confirmed by tissue biopsy of skin, rectum, nerve or conjunctive tissue to confirm the presence of characteristic swellings (spheroid bodies) in the nerve axons. 

Treatment
Treatment

There is no cure for INAD and no treatment that can stop the progress of the disease. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Doctors can prescribe medications for pain relief and sedation. Physiotherapists and other physical therapists can teach parents and caregivers how to position and seat their child, and to exercise arms and legs to maintain comfort. 

Prognosis
Prognosis

INAD is a progressive disease.  Once symptoms begin, they will worsen over time.  Generally, a baby’s development starts to slow down between the ages of 6 months to 3 years.  The first symptoms may be slowing of motor and mental development, followed by loss or regression of previously acquired skills.  Rapid, wobbly eye movements and squints may be the first symptoms, followed by floppiness in the body and legs (more than in the arms). For the first few years, a baby with INAD will be alert and responsive, despite being increasingly physically impaired.  Eventually, because of deterioration in vision, speech, and mental skills, the child will lose touch with its surroundings.   Death usually occurs between the ages of 5 to 10 years.

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INAD is a progressive disease.  Once symptoms begin, they will worsen over time.  Generally, a baby’s development starts to slow down between the ages of 6 months to 3 years.  The first symptoms may be slowing of motor and mental development, followed by loss or regression of previously acquired skills.  Rapid, wobbly eye movements and squints may be the first symptoms, followed by floppiness in the body and legs (more than in the arms). For the first few years, a baby with INAD will be alert and responsive, despite being increasingly physically impaired.  Eventually, because of deterioration in vision, speech, and mental skills, the child will lose touch with its surroundings.   Death usually occurs between the ages of 5 to 10 years.

Prognosis
Prognosis

INAD is a progressive disease.  Once symptoms begin, they will worsen over time.  Generally, a baby’s development starts to slow down between the ages of 6 months to 3 years.  The first symptoms may be slowing of motor and mental development, followed by loss or regression of previously acquired skills.  Rapid, wobbly eye movements and squints may be the first symptoms, followed by floppiness in the body and legs (more than in the arms). For the first few years, a baby with INAD will be alert and responsive, despite being increasingly physically impaired.  Eventually, because of deterioration in vision, speech, and mental skills, the child will lose touch with its surroundings.   Death usually occurs between the ages of 5 to 10 years.

Definition

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a rare inherited neurological disorder. It affects axons, the part of a nerve cell that carries messages from the brain to other parts of the body, and causes progressive loss of vision, muscular control, and mental skills. While the basic genetic and metabolic causes are unknown, INAD is the result of an abnormal build-up of toxic substances in nerves that communicate with muscles, skin, and the conjunctive tissue around the eyes.  Symptoms usually begin within the first 2 years of life, with the loss of head control and the ability to sit, crawl, or walk, accompanied by deterioration in vision and speech.  Some children may have seizures.  Distinctive facial deformities may be present at birth, including a prominent forehead, crossed eyes, an unusually small nose or jaw, and large, low-set ears.  INAD is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that both parents must be carriers of the defective gene that causes INAD to pass it on to their child. Electrophysiology (nerve conduction velocities) may be helpful for diagnosis, although diagnosis is usually confirmed by tissue biopsy of skin, rectum, nerve or conjunctive tissue to confirm the presence of characteristic swellings (spheroid bodies) in the nerve axons. 

Treatment

There is no cure for INAD and no treatment that can stop the progress of the disease. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Doctors can prescribe medications for pain relief and sedation. Physiotherapists and other physical therapists can teach parents and caregivers how to position and seat their child, and to exercise arms and legs to maintain comfort. 

Prognosis

INAD is a progressive disease.  Once symptoms begin, they will worsen over time.  Generally, a baby’s development starts to slow down between the ages of 6 months to 3 years.  The first symptoms may be slowing of motor and mental development, followed by loss or regression of previously acquired skills.  Rapid, wobbly eye movements and squints may be the first symptoms, followed by floppiness in the body and legs (more than in the arms). For the first few years, a baby with INAD will be alert and responsive, despite being increasingly physically impaired.  Eventually, because of deterioration in vision, speech, and mental skills, the child will lose touch with its surroundings.   Death usually occurs between the ages of 5 to 10 years.

What research is being done?

Researchers continue to search for the defective gene that causes INAD in hopes of developing drugs that can stop the disease. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research related to INAD in its laboratories at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. Much of this research focuses on finding better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure disorders such as INAD. 

Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus
Degenerative Nerve Disorders

Patient Organizations
NBIA Disorders Association
2082 Monaco Court
El Cajon
CA
El Cajon, CA 92019-4235
Tel: 619-588-2315