Barbara Illowsky Karp, MD received her undergraduate degree and a Master's Degree in Biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After completing medical school at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, she moved to the DC area for internship, residency in neurology and fellowship in behavioral neurology at the NIH. She served as Chief of the NIH/NINDS Neurology Consultation Service in the NIH Intramural Research Program. She established the multi-institute NIH Combined NeuroScience IRB in 2006 and served as its chair until 2019. Her clinical practice and research focused on movement disorders and therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin. Her interest in botulinum toxin includes its use in pain, focused on chronic pelvic pain in women.