The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, part of the National Institutes of Health, is looking for individuals to participate in clinical studies. Participating in clinical trials allows you to play an active role in research on the nature and causes of many disorders of the brain and nervous system, and to possibly help physician-scientists develop future treatments. The information below is designed to help you quickly learn about actively recruiting research studies for which you or someone you know may be eligible.


Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem due to its high mortality and morbidity rates, mainly affecting young adult males. Aggression to the prefrontal cortex, caused by an external physical force, responsible for anatomical injury and/or functional impairment, causes cognitive deficits with important consequences for the individual affected by the trauma and their caregivers. Therefore, rehabilitation is of utmost importance. The increase in pre-frontal cortical activation through training, activity-dependent stimulation and neuroplasticity, especially in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is related to better performance in functional memory. In this context, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), intended to drive neuroplastic changes in the brain, has been widely used to bring benefits to the cognitive function of individuals affected by various neurological conditions, including TBI by promoting neuroplasticity for critically involved cortical areas in the performance of tasks, culminating in cognitive benefits. In addition, studies have shown greater benefits when the technique is combined with cognitive training. Therefore, the objective of this parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial is to investigate the effect of tDCS applied on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and virtual reality cognitive training alone or in association with tDCS on cognitive function of individuals with severe chronic TBI.

Eligibility Criteria:

Inclusion Criteria: - Chronic TBI (≥ 12 months) - Severe TBI (Glasgow ≤ 8, loss of consciousness > 6 hours, post-traumatic amnesia > 1 week) - Working memory, attention or executive deficit - Score in Mini Mental State Examination according the cut-off point (i.e. 13 to illiterates individuals, 18 to low and medium schooling and 26 to high schooling). Exclusion Criteria: - Individuals unable to perform the activities proposed in the study protocol (e.g. physical deficits, lack of collaboration, aphasia, accuses, amaurosis) - Mid or extensive cranial defects - Titanium cranial prosthesis - Extensive cranial prosthesis located on the dorsal prefrontal cortex - Metallic devices implanted in the brain - Psychotic disorders - Recent history of alcoholism or use of drugs - Neurological diseases (e.g Parkinson, Stroke, Alzheimer).

Study Design: