NINDS Advisory Council Meeting Minutes, May 29, 2014

Department of Health and Human Services
Public Health Service
National Institutes of Health
National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council

Summary of Meeting1
May 29, 2014

The National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NANDS) Council was convened for its 190th meeting on May 29, 2014, in Building 31, Conference Room 10, on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) campus, Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Story Landis, Director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), served as Chairperson.

In accordance with Public Law 92-463, the meeting was:

Open: May 29: 8:05 a.m. to 3:10 p.m. for the review and discussion of program development, needs, and policy; and
Closed: May 29: 3:10 p.m. to 4:35 p.m. for the consideration of individual grant applications.
May 29: 4:35 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. for the review of the Board of Scientific Counselors' Reports

Council members present were:

Dr. Ben Barres
Dr. E. Antonio Chiocca
Dr. Robert Darnell
Dr. Byron Ford
Dr. David Ginty
Dr. David Goldstein
Mr. Paul Gross (via teleconference)
Dr. Sharon Hesterlee
Dr. David Holtzman
Dr. David Julius
Dr. Eve Marder
Ms. Ilene Penn Miller
Dr. Jonathan Mink
Dr. Robert Pacifici
Ms. Amy Comstock Rick
Dr. Ralph Sacco
Dr. Amita Sehgal

Council Roster (Attachment 1)

Council Members absent:
Dr. Kevin McNaught

Ex Officio Members present:
Captain Michael Colston, Department of Defense
Dr. Robert Ruff, Department of Veterans Affairs

Members of the public present for portions of the open meeting included:
Dr. Nadine Tatton, The Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration
Ms. Anne Imrie, Social & Scientific Systems
Dr. Naomi Kleitman, Craig H. Neilson Foundation
Dr. Tom Jacobs, University of Texas
Dr. Thomas Montine, University of Washington
Dr. Dawn Mancuso, Hydrocephalus Association
Mr. Ronald Bartek, Friedreich's Ataxia Research Alliance
Mr. Ed Rorie, NOVA Research Company

Federal attendees are listed at the end of these minutes.

I.  Call to Order and Opening Remarks 

Dr. Story Landis, Director, NINDS, welcomed Council members, visitors, and staff to the 190th meeting of the National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. 

Council member, Kevin McNaught was unable to attend this meeting. Council member, Paul Gross, participated by phone.

Dr. Landis congratulated Council member Dr. Robert Darnell on his recent election into the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Landis announced that this is the last meeting for five current Council members whose terms expire on July 31: Robert Darnell, Sharon Hesterlee, Eve Marder, Robert Pacifici and Amita Sehgal. This was also the last meeting for the VA ex officio member, Robert Ruff, who will be retiring on July 31. Dr. Landis thanked them for their service.

Dr. Landis also announced that Dr. Petra Kaufmann, former Director of the NINDS Office of Clinical Research, recently left NINDS to join the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) as Director of Clinical Innovation. She now oversees the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, building on her academic research background and her experience at the NINDS. Dr. Walter Koroshetz has agreed to assume Dr. Kaufmann's responsibilities as Director of the Office of Clinical Research, until we can find a permanent successor. Dr. Elizabeth McNeil will serve as Acting Deputy Director for Scientific Affairs, Dr. Patricia Walicke as Acting Deputy Director for Clinical Affairs, and Dr. Claudia Moy as Acting Director for Administrative Affairs. Finally, Dr. Landis announced that Dr. Martin Mendoza, Program Analyst from OCR, recently left NINDS for a position at the FDA.

Dr. Amy Adams, Director, Office of Scientific Liaison, introduced Dr. Chris Palmer who recently joined her office as a Communications Editor.

II.  Report of the Associate Director for Extramural Research, NINDS

Approval of Council Minutes — Dr. Finkelstein requested, and the Council voted for, approval of the Januaey 30, 2014, Council meeting minutes.

The following future Council meeting dates were confirmed:

September 11-12, 2014 (Thursday and Friday)
January 29-30, 2015 (Thursday and Friday)
May 28-29, 2015 (Thursday and Friday)
September 10-11, 2015 (Thursday and Friday)
February 4-5, 2016 (Thursday and Friday)
May 26-27, 2016 (Thursday and Friday)
September 15-16, 2016 (Thursday and Friday)

Expedited Review Process—Each Council round, a subset of Council members approve applications in advance of the meeting with scores within the payline for which there are no unresolved issues. Dr. Finkelstein thanked Byron Ford, David Goldstein, and Amy Comstock Rick for handling this responsibility for fiscal year (FY) 2014. For the current Council round, 166 applications were eligible to be expedited, including 7 K Awards, and 11 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) applications. 112 of these awards already have been issued, and the others will be issued shortly after Council.

Extramural Announcements—Dr. Rajesh Ranganathan, Director of Office of Translational Research, introduced Dr. Chris Boshoff, Dr. Shamsi Raeissi, Ms. Maria Charlier, and Ms. Natasha Davis. He said farewell to Mr. Taek Oh, Ms. Karin French, and Ms. Marilyn Johnson.

Dr. Finkelstein introduced Dr. Matthew Raymond, Program Analyst, Repair and Plasticity Cluster and Monique Hill, Committee Management Specialist within his immediate office. Next, Dr. Finkelstein thanked Ruth Linn, Committee Management Officer, for her 42 years of service and congratulated her on her retirement.

III. Report of the Director, NINDS

NIH and NINDS Budget
Dr. Landis reported on the status of the NIH and NINDS budgets for FY2014.  The Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2014 (P.L 113-76) was signed into law on January 17, 2014.  The law includes an additional $1 billion for NIH, but does not completely replace funds eliminated by the sequester, passed as part of the Budget Control Act of 2011 (P.L.  112-25) resulted in a decrease of $1.5 billion in funding to the NIH. NINDS received an overall budget of $1.53 billion, a decrease of approximately 5% from FY12. In FY13, NINDS maintained a 14th percentile payline by reducing most noncompeting research project grants (RPGs) and center award budgets by 3.5 percent. Similar cuts were also made to the intramural program (DIR) and to Research Management and Support (RMS).

In FY14, approximately two-thirds of the sequestered funds were restored, bringing the NINDS budget to $1.59 billion. The FY14 payline has been set at the 14th percentile, and cuts to noncompeting RPGs were limited to 1 percent (a 2.5% increase over FY13). DIR and RMS received an equivalent 2.5 percent budget increase. Dr. Landis presented NINDS' FY14 budget distribution and described the decline in NINDS purchasing power over the past 14 years. Since 2003, the NINDS budget has remained largely flat; however, the purchasing power in FY14 has declined to funding levels equivalent to those of FY00.

On March 4, 2014, President Obama submitted his FY15 budget request to Congress.  Included in this request was a proposed FY15 NIH budget of $30.4 billion including $1.61 billion allocated to NINDS.  On March 26, 2014, Dr. Landis, Dr. Francis Collins, Director, NIH, and other members of the NIH Leadership team testified at the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, HHS, Education hearing on the Future of Biomedical Research.  On April 2, 2014 they testified at the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, HHS, Education hearing on President Obama's FY15 budget request for NIH.

Additionally, Dr. Collins testified at the Senate Appropriations Committee hearing, Driving Innovation through Federal Investment, on April 29, 2014 and at the House Energy & Commerce Committee's Roundtable on 21st Century Cures, held May 6, 2014.  This was the first of several public discussions held by the Committee regarding the state of biomedical innovation in the United States.

Improving Peer Review—In October 2008, NIH revised its policy on amended applications stating that NIH will accept only a single amendment to a new or competing renewal application. This policy was implemented following the observation that between FY98 and FY07, R01s awarded to A2 applications (the second resubmission) increased from 9% of R01s awarded to 33%. It was anticipated that the policy change would lead to funding of high-quality applications earlier with fewer resubmissions; however, not being able to submit an A2 application was the most common complaint received from the extramural community. Based on this feedback, the NIH announced an updated policy April 2014 (NOT-OD-14-074), stating that "effective immediately, the NIH … will accept a new (A0) application following an unsuccessful resubmission (A1) application. The subsequent new application need not demonstrate substantial changes in scientific direction compared to previously reviewed submissions, and must not contain an introduction to respond to the critiques from the previous review."

Dr. Landis reported on a second round of pilots being conducted to assess the proposed new NIH Biosketch. The new biosketch focuses on the magnitude and significance of scientific advances rather than on where and how often research is published. The new format allows up to five pages for the entire biosketch, permitting applicants to include up to five of their most significant scientific contributions, the influence of their contributions on their scientific fields, and subsequent effects of those contributions on health or technology. Dr. Landis noted that although NINDS is not part of the pilot, we will participate if the new biosketch is adopted across NIH.

The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) and a subcommittee of the Scientific Management Review Board (SMRB) have focused on reducing the time from application submission to award (current time to award for 90% of non-AIDS R01s is 414 days). Typically, a grant application is submitted, it arrives at Receipt and Referral in CSR, goes through peer review, a summary statement is released, programmatic decisions are made, and awards are issued. Dr. Landis reviewed the current timeline for these steps and noted a lag between the release of the summary statement following peer review and the funding of the award. Council members questioned whether NIH has any comparable data from private institutions with similar peer review processes. Dr. Landis indicated that differences in NIH's funding schedule versus those of private organizations make these data difficult to generate.

BRAIN Initiative—In December 2013, NIH released six funding opportunity announcements (FOAs) in support of theBRAIN Initiative. The FOAs received a robust response from the neuroscience community, and review of the applications submitted in response to them is ongoing. $40.7M of FY14 funds supporting these FOAs comes from several sources across the NIH including, NINDS ($12.85M), the National Institute on Mental Health ($12.85M), the Blueprint for Neuroscience Research ($10M), the National Institute on Drug Abuse ($4M), and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering ($1M). $22 million of these funds involves new money from the FY14 appropriation that was added to the base budgets of the four participating Institutes.

On June 5, 2014, the BRAIN Working Group will present its final report with milestones, timetables, and cost estimates to the Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD). Moving forward, a total of ten Institutes will be participating in the BRAIN initiative and it is anticipated that any new funding will be appropriated into the base budgets of participating ICs. A multi-council working group will soon be formed, composed of representatives from the Advisory Councils of the participating Institutes, and will provide oversight, scientific input, and strategic guidance for the BRAIN initiative through its implementation phase. The multi-council working group will also include ex officio members from BRAIN agencies (e.g. NSF, DARPA) to help ensure a nationally coordinated effort.

The NINDS Council suggested that NHGRI also be part of the multi-council working group, given the importance of genomics in BRAIN-related research activities. In addition, Council advised that a member of the Big Data Working Group participate in the BRAIN multi-council working group.

Other Updates—The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues was charged with identifying a set of core ethical standards to both guide neuroscience research and to address ethical dilemmas raised by the application of research findings.  Public meetings were held in August 2013, December 2013, and February 2014.  The Commission issued one report, with a second to follow. The first report, Gray Matters, offered four overarching recommendations:

  1. Integrate ethics early and explicitly throughout research.
  2. Evaluate existing and innovative approaches to ethics integration.
  3. Integrate ethics and science through education at all levels.
  4. Explicitly include ethical perspectives on advisory and review bodies.

NIH currently is working to implement these recommendations.

NIH is enacting new policies to expand the consideration of sex differences in research studies using animal models and cells.  Beginning in FY15, NIH will phase in requirements for grantees to address inclusion of both sexes in preclinical research.  New information will be requested in applications and progress reports, and new reviewer guidelines are being drafted. 

The Report of the External Advisory Committee (EAC, now ACD) on the Intramural Research Program of NIH (April 11, 1994) advised that individual reviews of each intramural program be conducted.  NINDS is launching a Blue Ribbon Panel review of its intramural program, which will be led by a Council working group chaired by Dr. Robert Darnell.  Dr. Landis reviewed the overarching questions that will be addressed by the Panel and indicated that a final report would be presented at the September 2014 Council meeting.  This Blue Ribbon Panel review will contribute to efforts of NIH leadership to craft a long-term scientific vision for the NIH intramural program as a whole.

Dr. John Ruffin, Director of the National Institute on Minority Health Disparities (NIMHD) retired from federal service in March 2014.  Dr. Yvonne Maddox currently is serving as Acting NIMHD Director.  Dr. Hannah Valentine has been named the first NIH Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity. 

Council discussed the impact of the recent paper, Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws (Alberts, et. al; PNAS, 2014; 111(16):5773-7), at the level of the NIH leadership.  The paper discussed strains on the current biomedical research enterprise and approaches to addressing them.  Dr. Landis noted that the issues raised in this paper would be good for discussion at a future Council meeting. 

IV.  Trends in NINDS Funding of Basic and Applied Research (Follow-up)

Dr. Finkelstein, Director of Extramural Research, NINDS, updated Council on “Trends in NINDS Funding of Basic and Applied Research”, initially discussed at the February 2012 meeting.  As previously reported, funding for basic research decreased from about 87 percent of the competing research budget in FY97 to roughly 66 percent in FY11.  Significantly, basic/basic (pure basic) research declined from 52 percent of the competing budget in FY97 to 20 percent in FY11, while funding for basic/disease-related, applied/translational, and applied/clinical research all increased over the same time period. Trends in investigator-initiated research were similar to those seen within the larger research portfolio. 

Based on the findings of these analyses, summary statements were analyzed to address the hypothesis that NIH peer review favors disease-focused research.  In several cases, summary statements were identified that point to the lack of relevance to human health and disease as a weakness in the application. Despite these findings, the success rates for basic/basic applications exceed those for applications in any of the other three research categories, driven largely by a decrease in the submission of basic/basic applications.   The NIH Center for Scientific Review has since changed their orientation materials for reviewers to emphasize the fact that both basic and applied research are important to the NIH mission. 

These findings are of concern to NINDS leadership, and have led to a number of significant changes across the Institute, including: a change to the NINDS mission statement to emphasize the importance of basic research, an emphasis on basic research when considering applications beyond the payline for funding, and a public outreach effort to underscore the Institute’s commitment to basic research (see:  Dr. Finkelstein indicated that the goal of these efforts is to create a level playing field so that scientists can work on research topics that they are interested in, rather than on those that they perceive as preferable to funders and reviewers.  Dr. Finkelstein also reported that since many of these changes were made, preliminary data indicate that funding for basic/basic research has increased to approximately 27% of the competing research budget.

Council discussed factors that may be contributing to the observed trends (e.g. foundation research missions are often disease-specific; incentive system favoring disease-focused research; health care funding favors clinical research) and suggested strategies to mitigate them (e.g. improved messaging for the importance of basic research). 

V.  Perspectives on NINDS Funding of Clinical Research

Dr. Kaufmann, former Director of the NINDS Office Clinical Research, reflected on her time at NINDS and shared her perspectives of clinical research at the Institute.  She noted the continued need for medical evidence and new therapeutics for neurological disorders, but that the current system is too slow and costly.  Dr. Kaufmann described a number of strategies employed by NINDS in recent years to address these issues including, streamlining the conduct of clinical trials through central IRBs, master contracts, and centralized research infrastructure; enhancing stakeholder engagement at all levels (e.g. patients, hospitals, physicians, federal agencies); facilitating secondary use of data and specimens using common data elements, research-friendly consent forms, and federated registries; utilizing modern techniques for participant recruitment; and training a new generation of clinical researchers. 

Additional issues raised by Council members included: the need for team approaches to develop image-based outcome measures using animal models; challenges associated with intellectual property in therapy development; and the need to overcome the limited sharing and utilization of human data for ancillary studies. 

VI.  NIH as a Digital Enterprise

Dr. Philip Bourne, Associate Director for Data Science, NIH Office of the Director, presented perspectives on the challenges and potential points of intervention in the field of data science.  This emerging field, driven largely by the deinstitutionalization and democratization of science, faces a number of challenges including: the variable reproducibility of published research studies, infrastructure demands to support data sustainability, limited insights into the usage of publically funded data, and the broken incentive system for the publication and sharing of data sets.  Dr. Bourne described a number of approaches being taken by the NIH to address some of these challenges including new policies (e.g., data sharing, blanket consent), targeting of funding according to need (e.g metrics, de-identification, improved governance structures, and coordination across agencies and countries), shared infrastructure, and support for new reward systems. 

One strategy described by Dr. Bourne to address issues related to data sustainability is the expansion of the capabilities and the utilization of the NIH Commons. The new features in this proposed “research object sandbox” will include Dropbox-like storage, standards development, and application of quality metrics, creating a place for researchers to collaborate and discover.  It is anticipated that pilots will be developed in the fall of 2014 to explore these ideas further.  Proposed strategies around training new cohorts of data scientists include the development of new courses for skills and methods development in data science; mentored career development awards; and retreats with a diversity of participants and themes.   

Council members noted the unique challenges of big data in neuroscience (e.g. diversity of data sets), and advised that neuroscientists be more visibly represented in these data science efforts. In addition, Council members suggested establishing automated systems to track whether data are deposited in the appropriate resources.  Dr. Landis noted that Dr. Bourne will periodically update Council on NIH’s data science initiatives.

VII. Concept Clearance for Proposed Initiatives

Dr. Rajesh Ranganathan, Director, Office of Translational Research, NINDS, requested concept clearance for the Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network (BPN) 2.0 to support translational research.  The BPN will offer a flexible mix of contract access and grant funding to support investigator-initiated, small molecule drug development efforts.  This program will span activities from Hit-to-Lead / Proof-of-Principle through Phase I clinical trials, with flexible entry points at both the discovery and development phase of the process. Other features of BPN 2.0 include: phased funding to support due diligence and filling in data gaps, cost sharing between the participating NIH Institutes and the NIH Blueprint, and an SBIR track.  It is anticipated that the BPN 2.0 FOAs will be released in July 2014; first application receipt date will be October 2014; first Council review will be in May 2015; and first grants will be awarded in June 2015.  The Council voted to approve concept clearance for this initiative with one abstention. 

Dr. David Owens, Program Director, Repair and Plasticity Cluster, NINDS, requested concept clearance for a program announcement with set-aside funds (PAS) to encourage applications involving purely basic neuroscience research.  The PAS, tentatively titled “Advancing Basic Neuroscience Research,” will solicit R01s for review at regular CSR study sections.  Grants within the payline would be awarded as usual, allowing set-aside funds to support 10-15 applications each year with scores just beyond the payline.  This PAS is intended to relay the message to the research community that NINDS is committed to the continued discovery of fundamental knowledge about the brain and nervous system, and any area of basic neuroscience research within the NINDS mission will be considered within the scope.  Council discussed the how funding decisions would be made for this PAS and strategies that CSR might use to ensure equipoise between basic and applied research.   The Council voted to approve concept clearance for this initiative.

Dr. Elizabeth McNeil, Program Director, Office of Clinical Research, NINDS, requested concept clearance for a joint initiative supported by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and NINDS to test multilevel interventions to improve blood pressure control in health care facilities or organizations serving patient populations that have inadequate blood pressure control and high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.  This initiative is a $25 million investment by PCORI and includes NINDS and NHLBI as co-leads as well as participation from NIMHD, the National Institute on Aging (NIA), and the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).  The proposed initiative will use the UH2/UH3 mechanisms to conduct trials that will ultimately provide scientific models testing multicomponent and multilevel interventions.  The Council voted to approve concept clearance for this initiative with one abstention.

VIII. Presentations by the Division of Intramural Research, NINDS

Update from the Scientific Director of Intramural Research—Dr. Alan Koretsky, Scientific Director, NINDS, presented an overview of structural biology and biophysics research at NINDS.  

Scientific Presentation:  The Tubulin Code: Deciphering and Engineering the Chemical and Genetic Complexity of the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Dr. Antonina Roll-Mecak, Chief, Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, DIR, NINDS

Dr. Roll-Mecak reported on the chemical diversity of tubulin and the posttranslational modifications that mark certain subpopulations of microtubules for specialized functions in the cell. The enzymes that introduce these conserved modifications are essential to normal development. Underscoring their importance for normal cell physiology, increased levels of tubulin modifications are a hallmark of cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, several neurodevelopmental disorders are linked to mutations in tubulin genes at sites that can interfere with modification enzyme function. Research in Dr. Roll-Mecak’s laboratory aims to uncover how the chemical complexity of tubulin is generated by microtubule modification enzymes and how they modulate the dynamic and mechanical properties of microtubules, constituting a “code” that is interpreted by microtubule based motors and associated proteins.

Scientific Presentation:  Exploring Ion Channel Structure and Gating Mechanisms Using Tarantula Toxins: Dr. Kenton Swartz, Senior Investigator, DIR, NINDS

Dr. Swartz reported on research from his laboratory using protein toxins from venomous organisms.  He noted that these toxins have served as valuable tools for investigating the structure and gating mechanisms of voltage-activated ion channels. Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are a large family of ion channels that are activated by diverse stimuli and ligands, including second messengers, temperature, voltage and natural products such as capsaicin, menthol and wasabi. Dr. Swartz’s lab has begun to investigate the structure and gating mechanisms of the heat-activated TRPV1 channel using the double-knot toxin (DkTx) from tarantula venom, and their recent findings suggest that conformational rearrangements throughout the pore domain of TRPV1 are strongly coupled, and that this domain is likely to function as the thermosensor.

IX.  Review of the Division of Intramural Research Board of Scientific Counselors' Reports

In the closed session, Dr. Koretsky presented the findings and recommendations of the Board of Scientific Counselors based on their review of specific Division of Intramural Research laboratories/units during 2013.  The Council discussed the reports of the Board and accepted them.

X.  Council Consideration of Pending Applications

This portion of the meeting, involving specific grant review, was closed to the public.  The Council gave special attention to applications from foreign institutions and other applications requiring specific discussion.  Prior to discussion of the grants, Dr. Finkelstein reminded Council members regarding conflict of interest and confidentiality.

Conflict of Interest—Regulations concerning conflict of interest were reviewed.  Council members were reminded that materials furnished for review purposes and discussion during the closed portions of the meeting are considered privileged information.  All Council members present signed a statement certifying that they had not been involved in any conflict-of-interest situations during the review of grant applications. 

Confidentiality—During the closed session, any information that is discussed and the outcome of any recommendation are considered privileged information.  They may not be discussed outside of the closed session.  If an applicant requests support for his or her application from a Council member, the Council member must respond that he/she is not permitted to discuss the application.  Any inquiry should be referred to Dr. Robert Finkelstein, Council Executive Secretary, who then will refer the question to the appropriate staff member for response. 

Research Training and Career Development Programs – The Council reviewed a total of 316 research career development and institutional training grant applications with primary assignment to NINDS, and 183 of them (57.9 percent) were scored in the amount of $13.25 million first-year direct costs.  It is anticipated that, of the research career development and institutional training grant applications competing at this Council, NINDS will be able to pay first-year direct costs of approximately $5.4 million (72 grants).

Research Project and Center Awards – The Council reviewed a total of 1,380 research project and center applications with primary assignment to NINDS, and 767 of them (55.6 percent) were scored/percentiled in the amount of $204.5 million first-year direct costs.  It is anticipated that, of the research grants competing at this Council, NINDS will be able to pay first-year direct costs of approximately $56.8 million (232 grants).

Senator Jacob Javits Neuroscience Investigator Awards – The Senator Jacob Javits Neuroscience Investigator Awards are made to distinguished investigators who have a record of scientific excellence and productivity, who are actively pursuing an area of research of strategic importance, and who can be expected to continue to be highly productive for a seven-year period.  Candidates are nominated and selected at each Council meeting.   Council approved eight Javits nominations at this meeting.

Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Award Programs – The Council reviewed a total of 122 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Technology Transfer Award (STTR) grant applications with primary assignment to NINDS, and 67 of them (54.9 percent) were scored in the amount of $16.2 million first-year direct costs.  It is anticipated that, of the SBIR and STTR applications competing at this Council, NINDS will be able to pay first-year direct costs of approximately $4.03 million (20 grants).

XI.  Adjournment

The meeting was adjourned at 5:30 p.m. on Thursday, May 29.

NINDS employees present for portions of the meeting included:

Dr. Alan Willard
Ms. Ruth Linn
Dr. Scott Janis
Ms. Nena Wells
Dr. Story Landis
Dr. Yuan Liu
Dr. Ernie Lyons
Dr. Robert Finkelstein
Dr. John Porter
Dr. David Owens
Dr. Jane Fountain
Dr. Beth-Anne Sieber
Dr. May Wong
Dr. Birgit Neuhuber
Dr. Tracy Chen
Ms. Shannon Garnett
Mr. Ken Frushour
Mr. Phillip Wiethorn
Dr. Claudia Moy
Dr. Paul Scott
Dr. Robert Zalutsky
Dr. Laura Mamounas
Dr. Courtney Ferrell Aklin
Dr. Amelie Gubitz
Ms. Louise Ritz
Dr. Crina Frincu
Dr. Joanne Odenkirchen
Dr. Chuck Cywin
Dr. Rajesh Ranganathan
Dr. Katrina Gwinn
Dr. Ipolia Ramadan
Ms. Janice Cordell
Dr. Ursula Utz
Dr. Elizabeth Webber
Dr. Audrey Penn
Dr. JoAnn McConnell
Dr. Margaret Ochocinska
Dr. Amir Tamiz
Ms. Maureen Hambrecht
Dr. Patrick Hussmann
Dr. Vicky Whittemore
Dr. Chris Boshoff
Dr. Andrey Kuzmichev
Dr. Matthew Raymond
Dr. Lyn Jakeman
Dr. Miriam Leenders
Ms. Kristin Perkins
Ms. Preeti Hans
Dr. Andrew Skinner
Dr. Daofen Chen
Dr. Randall Stewart
Dr. Shanta Rajaram
Dr. Shai Silberberg
Dr. Jim Gnadt
Dr. Debra Babcock
Dr. Walter Koroshetz
Dr. Tijuanna Decoster
Dr. Anna Taylor
Ms. Kelly Baker
Dr. Amy Adams
Ms. Quynh Ly
Dr. Natalia Strunnikova
Dr. Christine Torborg
Dr. Roderick Corriveau
Dr. Michelle Jones-London
Dr. Yejun He
Dr. Shamsi Raeissi
Dr. Francesca Bosetti
Dr. Susan Marino
Dr. Jill Morris
Ms. Jamie Roberts
Ms. Christina Vert
Dr. Margaret Sutherland
Dr. William Benzing
Dr. Antonina Roll-Mecak
Dr. Kenton Swartz
Dr. Alan Koretsky
Dr. David Jett
Dr. Deborah Hirtz
Mr. Taek Oh
Dr. D.  Elizabeth McNeil
Dr. Wendy Galpern
Ms. Karin French
Dr. John Kehne
Ms. Margo Warren
Dr. Raul Saavedra
Ms. Christine Lam
Dr. Brandy Fureman
Dr. Hao Wang
Dr. Jim Koenig
Ms. Nancy Hart
Dr. Rebecca Roof
Ms. Stephanie Fertig
Mr. Paul Girolami
Dr. Pamela Wernett
Ms. Diana Cummings
Dr. Letitia Weigand
Dr. Heather Rieff

Other Federal employees present for portions of the meeting included:

Dr. Laurent Taupenot, CSR
Dr. Christine Piggee, CSR
Dr. Carol Hamelink, CSR
Dr. Geoffrey Schofield, CSR
Dr. Jon Ivins, CSR
Dr. Wei-Qin Zhao, CSR
Dr. Catherine Bennett, CSR
Dr. Samuel Edwards, CSR
Dr. Petra Kaufmann, NCATS
Dr. Philip Bourne, OD

We certify that, to the best of our knowledge, the foregoing minutes and attachments are accurate and complete.

Robert Finkelstein, Ph.D.
Executive Secretary
National Advisory Neurological Disorders
and Stroke Council

Director, Division of Extramural Research
National Institute of Neurological Disorders
and Stroke

Story C. Landis, Ph.D.
National Advisory Neurological Disorders
and Stroke Council

National Institute of Neurological Disorders
and Stroke

These minutes will be formally considered by the Council at its next meeting. Corrections or notations will be incorporated in the minutes of that meeting.

1For the record, it is noted that members absent themselves from the meeting when the Council is discussing applications (a) from their respective institutions or (b) in which a real or apparent conflict of interest might occur.