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NINDS 2012 Congressional Justification


Department of Health and Human Services
National Institutes of Health
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
2012 Fiscal Year Budget
Congressional Justification


Table of Contents

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Organization Chart

Organization chart for NINDS. The chart shows 8 boxes, the Director box at the top with 5 beneath and 2 support staff. The Director of NINDS is Dr. Story C. Landis. The director's support staff are Deputy Director Dr. Walter Koroshetz and Executive Officer Ms. Joellen Harper Austen. The 5 direct reports are: Division of Extramural Activities Dr. Robert Finkelstein, Division of Intramural Research Dr. Alan Koretsky, Office of Translational Research, Dr William Matthew, the Office of Clinical Research Dr. Petra Kaufmann and the Office of Minority Health Research Dr. Al Gordon.


National Institutes of Health
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to neurological disorders and stroke, $1,664,253,000


Amounts Available for Obligation 1
(Dollars in Thousands)
Source of Funding F Y 2010 Actual F Y 2011 CR F Y 2012 PB
Appropriation $1,636,371,000 $1,636,371,000 $1,664,253,000
Type 1 Diabetes 0 0 0
Rescission 0 0 0
Supplemental 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation $1,636,371,000 $1,636,371,000 $1,664,253,000
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) -2,557,000 0 0
Real transfer under Secretary's one-percent transfer authority -244 0 0
Comparative Transfers to NLM for NCBI and Public Access -679 -1,392 0
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) 2,557,000 0 0
Comparative transfer under Secretary's one-percent transfer authority 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 1,635,448 1,634,979 1,664,253
Unobligated balance, start of year 0 0 0
Unobligated balance, end of year 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 1,635,448 1,634,979 1,664,253
Unobligated balance lapsing -2 0 0
Total obligations 1,635,446 1,634,979 1,664,253

1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
FY 2010 - $18,481 FY 2011 - $19,000 FY 2012 - $19,000


Budget Mechanism - Total 1/
(Dollars in Thousands)
MECHANISM FY 2010
Actual
FY 2011
CR
FY 2012
PB
Change vs. FY2010
Research Grants: Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount
Research Projects:
  Noncompeting 1,865 $801,660 1,904 $781,950 2,002 $848,307 137 $46,647
  Administrative Supplements (209) 24,149 (130) 15,000 (87) 10,000 122 (14,149)
  Competing 699 283,271 778 321,555 654 273,192 (45) (10,079)
      Subtotal, RPGs 2,564 1,109,080 2,682 1,118,505 2,656 1,131,499 92 22,740
  SBIR/STTR 97 40,126 94 39,688 95 40,447 (2) 321
 Research Project Grants 2,661 1,149,206 2,776 1,158,193 2,751 1,171,946 90 22,740

Research Centers:
  Specialized/Comprehensive 73 97,336 67 94,849 72 95,797 (1) (1,539)
  Clinical Research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Biotechnology 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Comparative Medicine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Research Centers 73 97,336 67 94,849 72 95,797 (1) (1,539)

Other Research:
   Research Careers 231 36,662 223 36,662 222 37,029 (9) 367
   Cancer Education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
   Cooperative Clinical Research 63 9,929 73 9,929 95 10,028 32 99
   Biomedical Research Support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
   Minority Biomedical Research Support 1 245 1 245 1 245 0 0
   Other 81 10,381 81 10,381 82 10,485 1 104
 Other Research 376 57,217 378 57,217 400 57,787 24 570
 Total Research Grants 3,110 1,303,759 3,221 1,310,259 3,223 1,325,530 113 21,771

Research Training:

FTTPs
 
FTTPs
 
FTTPs
     
   Individual Awards 405 15,222 405 15,526 405 16,147 0 925
   Institutional Awards 365 15,648 365 15,961 365 16,599 0 951
 Total Research Training 770 30,870 770 31,487 770 32,746 0 1,876

Research & Development Contracts
95 85,814 90 78,490 92 89,086 (3) 3,272
           (SBIR/STTR) (1) ($79) (1) ($79) (1) ($79) 0 $0

F T E's   F T E's   F T E's   F T E's  
Intramural Research 333 158,542 334 156,868 334 158,437 1 (105)
Research Management and Support 164 56,463 165 57,875 165 58,454 1 1,991
Total, NINDS 497 1,635,448 499 1,634,979 499 1,664,253 2 28,805

All items in italics are "non-adds"; items in parenthesis are subtractions


Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2012 President's Budget

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2012 President's Budget for NINDS, which is $28.8 million more than the FY 2010 Estimate, for a total of $1,664.3 million.

Research Project Grants (+$22.4 million, total $1,131.5 million): NINDS will support a total of 2,656 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2012. Noncompeting RPGs will increase by 137 awards and increase by $46.6 million. Competing RPGs will decrease the number of awards by 45 and decrease by $10.1 million. The NIH Budget policy for RPGs in FY 2012 includes a 2.0% inflationary increase in noncompeting awards and for the average costs in competing grants.

Research Training (+$1.9 million, total $32.7 million): NIH will provide an increase of four percent for stipends levels under the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award training program to continue efforts to attain the stipend levels recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. This will build on the two percent increase in stipend levels for FY 2011. Stipend levels were largely flat for several years, and the requested increase will help to sustain the development of a highly qualified biomedical research workforce.


Summary of Changes
(Dollars in Thousands)
F Y 2010 Actual $1,635,448
F Y 2012 Estimate $1,664,253
    Net change $28,805
  2012 Estimate Change from FY 2010
CHANGES F T E's Budget
Authority
F T E's Budget
Authority
 A.  Built-in:
    1.  Intramural research:
       
        a.  Annualization of January
             2010 pay increase
  $50,700   $305
        b.  January F Y 2012 pay increase   50,700   0
        c.  One less day of pay (n/a for 2011)   50,700   (196)
        d.  Payment for centrally furnished services   25,752   255
        e.  Increased cost of laboratory supplies,
             materials, and other expenses
  81,985   805
        Subtotal   $259,837   $1,169

    2.  Research Management and Support:
       
        a.  Annualization of January  
             2010 pay increase
  $23,679   $142
        b.  January F Y 2012 pay increase   23,679   0
        c.  One less day of pay (n/a for 2011)   23,679   (91)
        d.  Payment for centrally furnished services   12,247   124
        e.  Increased cost of laboratory supplies,
             materials, and other expenses
  22,247   217
        Subtotal   $105,812   $392

        Subtotal, Built-in
  $365,649   $1,561
B.  Program:        
    1.  Research Project Grants:        
        a.  Noncompeting 2,002 $858,307 137 $32,498
        b.  Competing  654 273,192 (45) (10,079)
        c.  SBIR/STTR 95 40,447 (2) 321
                Total 2,751 1,171,946 90 22,740
    2.  Research Centers 72 95,797 (1) (1,539)
    3.  Other Research 400 57,787 24 570
    4.  Research Training 770 32,746 0 1,876
    5.  Research and Development Contracts 92 89,086 (3) 3,272
         Subtotal, Extramural    1,447,362   26,919
  F T E's   F T E's  
    6.  Intramural Research                                    334 158,437 1 (1,274)
    7.  Research Management and Support 165 58,454 1 1,599
    8.  Construction   0   0
    9.  Buildings and Facilities   0   0
        Subtotal, Program 499 1,664,253 2 27,244
          Total Changes 499 1,664,253 2 28,805


Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTE's:

Funding Levels by Fiscal Year. Bar chart indicating funding levels for NINDS from 2008 through 2012. 2008, $1552.1 - 2009, $1592.8 - 2011, $1635.0, 2012 - $1,664.3


Bar chart indicating F T E's by Fiscal Year from 2008 through 2012. 2008, 504 - 2009, 495 - 2010, 497 - 2011, 499 - 2012, 499


Distribution by Mechanism:

FY 2012 Budget Mechanism Pie chart indicating funding percentage for fiscal year 2012 by budget mechanism. The pie has 7 slices. From largest to smallest the percentages are: Research Project Grants, 70%; Intramural Research, 10%; Research Centers, 6%; R&D Contracts, 5%; Other Research, 4%; RMS, 3%; Research Training, 2%


Change by Selected Mechanisms:

FY 2012 Estimate Percent Change from FY 2010 Mechanism. Bar chart showing percent change by mechanism. There are 7 bars. From top to bottom they are: Research Project Grants, 2.0%; Research Centers, -1.6%; Other Research, 1%; Research Training, 6.1%; R&D Contracts, 3.8%; Intramural Research, -.01%; Resource Management and Support, 3.5%


Budget Authority by Activity
(Dollars in Thousands)
  FY 2010
Actual
FY 2011
CR
FY 2012
PB
Change vs.
FY 2010
Extramural Research
Detail:
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Channels, Synapses & Circuits   $186,495   $186,436   $189,997   $ 3,502
Infrastructure, Training Programs, & Resources   235,921   236,090   240,599   4,678
Neural Environment   235,418   235,334   239,839   4,421
Neurodegeneration   178,219   178,162   181,565   3,346
Neurogenetics   184,657   184,598   188,123   3,466
Repair & Plasticity   139,319   139,275   141,935   2,616
Systems & Cognitive Neuroscience   183,567   183,509   187,014   3,447
Translational Research   76,847   76,822   78,290   1,443
     Subtotal, Extramural   1,420,443   1,420,236   1,447,362   26,919

Intramural Research
333 158,542 334 156,868 334 158,437 1 (105)

Research Management & Support
164 56,463 165 57,875 165 58,454 1 1,991

   TOTAL
497 1,635,448 499 1,634,979 499 1,664,253 2 28,805
1. Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund for Medical Research.
2. Includes Real Transfers and Comparable Adjustments as detailed in the "Amounts Available for Obligation" table.


Authorizing Legislation
  PHS Act/
Other Citation
U.S. Code
Citation
2010 Amount
Authorized
F Y 2010
Actual
2012 Amount
Authorized
F Y 2012
PB
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite   Indefinite  
National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Section 401(a) 42§281 Indefinite   Indefinite  
Total, Budget Authority       1,635,448,000   1,664,253,000


Appropriations History
Fiscal Year Budget Estimate to Congress House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriation     1/
2003 1,432,305,000 1,432,305,000 1,466,005,000 1,466,005,000
Rescission       (9,529,000)
2004 1,468,926,000 1,468,326,000 1,510,926,000 1,510,776,000
Rescission       (9,569,000)
2005 1,545,623,000 1,545,623,000 1,569,100,000 1,539,448,000
Rescission       (12,675,000)
2006 1,550,260,000 1,550,260,000 1,591,924,000 1,550,260,000
Rescission       (1,503,000)
2007 1,524,750,000 1,524,750,000 1,537,703,000 1,534,757,000
2008 1,537,019,000 1,559,106,000 1,573,268,000 1,571,353,000
Rescission       (27,452,000)
Supplemental       8,212,000
2009 1,545,397,000 1,598,521,000 1,588,405,000 1,593,344,000
Rescission       0
2010 1,612,745,000 1,650,253,000 1,620,494,000 1,636,371,000
Rescission       0
2011 1,681,333,000   1,678,696,000  
Rescission        
2012 1,664,253,000      


Justification of Budget Request
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and Title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

Budget Authority (BA):
  F Y 2010
Actual
F Y 2011
Continuing
Resolution
F Y 2012
Budget
Request
F Y 2012 +/- 2010
BA 1,635,448,000 $1,634,979,000 $1,664,253,000 $28,805,000
FTE 497 499 499 +2

Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.


Director's Overview

The mission of NINDS is to reduce the burden of neurological disorders through research. Hundreds of nervous system diseases affect people of all ages, in every segment of society, throughout the world, and progress depends upon many scientific and medical disciplines. Hence, NINDS priorities align closely with NIH-wide priorities.

Translating basic science advances into treatment and prevention is one such priority. For fifty years, NINDS has made pioneering contributions to drug, biologic, and device therapies, often in conjunction with the private sector. Rare diseases, bold new therapeutic strategies, and new uses for existing drugs are all challenges that NINDS is more likely than industry to take on. To exploit increasing scientific opportunities, a decade ago NINDS began a continuing process to re-engineer support for the development of new therapies. In 2003 NINDS launched the Cooperative Program in Translational Research, which supports teams of academic and small business investigators to carry out preclinical therapy development for neurological disorders. The first candidate therapies developed through this program are moving into clinical testing, and the Institute is now also targeting epilepsy through this program. NINDS chose spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to pilot another approach to drug development. With experts from academia, industry, and FDA, the SMA Project designed a drug development plan and is implementing the plan through a "virtual pharma" organization. The Project is working toward certification for a clinical trial by the end of 2011. Building on lessons from the SMA Project, NINDS is leading the 16 Institutes and Centers of the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience in a Grand Challenge on Neurotherapeutics. The challenge goal is to develop truly novel drugs that will transform the treatment of nervous system diseases. These and other NINDS translational programs integrate with NIH-wide programs, including the Molecular Libraries Program and Rapid Access to Interventional Development (RAID), in both of which NINDS plays a leading role.

Because novel therapies for several neurological diseases are moving toward readiness for clinical testing, NINDS is developing a multi-site network to improve the speed and effectiveness of early phase clinical testing of novel therapies for neurological disorders. The network will test the most promising interventions, whether they arise from academia, foundations, or industry. This is especially important for rare disorders, including pediatric diseases, which often lack clinical trials infrastructure. Another major clinical initiative, the Parkinson's Disease Biomarkers Identification Network, will develop and validate measurable indicators of the disease process, which are essential to develop therapies that stop disease progression before there is major disability. With biomarkers, clinical trials will determine in months, rather than years, whether drugs are slowing the progression of disease.

Large, phase III NINDS clinical trials have a long record of improving public health1 through enhancing the evidence base for health care decisions. Past successes include the first effective emergency treatment for stroke and advances in stroke prevention that have contributed to the substantial decreases in stroke deaths2. Recently completed NINDS clinical trials that compared the effectiveness of interventions for stroke prevention3, pediatric epilepsy4, and Parkinson's disease5 will further inform health care decisions. Major clinical trials for stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases are now underway, reflecting the Institute's continuing commitment to this goal.

As for many areas of research, improved technologies accelerate discovery in neuroscience. This year, for the first time, researchers identified by whole genome sequencing which mutation caused Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder, a peripheral nerve disease6, in a particular family. This is a harbinger of personalized genomics for many diseases. Next generation genomics research is underway for several neurological disorders, and a new "Center without Walls" will bring together the best possible team, regardless of geography, to apply advanced genomics to epilepsy. On another technological frontier, NINDS investments in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSc's) and other stem cells will advance understanding and drug screening for many diseases. A spate of new technologies is also enabling neuroscientists to take on a challenge that has implications for many diseases—understanding how circuits of nerve cells underlie memory, perception, complex movement, and other higher brain functions.

When progress against disease is not forthcoming, a gap in basic understanding is often the cause. Physicians and scientists across academia and industry agree that basic research impels long-term progress against disease and that harnessing the insight and ingenuity of the research community is the key. Supporting a vigorous scientific community and investigator-initiated research are thus high priorities for NINDS throughout its programs and policies. Several NINDS programs and policies specifically foster new investigators and new ideas. To encourage innovative research, for example, the EUREKA (Exceptional Unconventional Research Enabling Knowledge Acceleration) program complements the NIH Pioneer Awards, New Innovator Awards, and Transformative R01's, all of which support neuroscientists. A new EUREKA program targets epilepsy. To prepare the next generation of neuroscientists, NINDS training and career development programs are tailored to the needs of basic and clinical researchers, and funding policies favor early stage investigators. Among other activities to nourish the research community, NINDS encourages cooperative research, promotes data and resource sharing, and will implement recommendations from an intensive 2010 external review of the Institute's programs to enhance workforce diversity.

Neurological disorders present formidable challenges. Nonetheless, prospects for progress have never been more encouraging. NINDS is aggressively pursuing better prevention and treatment with a balance of basic, translational, and clinical research, supported through investigator-initiated and priority-targeted programs.





1Johnston SC et al. Effect of a US National Institutes of Health programme of clinical trials on public health and costs. Lancet 367:1319-27 2006
2 From 1996-2006, the U.S. age-adjusted stroke death rate fell 33.5% and actual stroke deaths declined 18.4%. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortSQL.html
3 Brott TG et al. Stenting Compared to Endarterectomy for Treatment of Carotid Artery Stenosis, New England Journal of Medicine 363:11-23 2010
4 Glauser et al. Ethosuximide, Valproic Acid, and Lamotrigine in Childhood Absence Epilepsy. New England Journal of Medicine. 362:790-799 2010
5 Weaver F. et al. Best Medical Therapy versus Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 301:63-73 2009; Follett et al. Pallidal versus Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 362:2077-91 2010
6 Lupski JR et al. Whole-genome sequencing in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. New England Journal of Medicine 362:1181-91 2010



Overall Budget Policy:

The FY 2012 request for NINDS is $1,664.523 million, an increase of $28.805 million or +1.8 percent over the FY 2010 actual level. NINDS balances investigator-initiated research with targeted solicitations that address mission-critical scientific opportunities and public health needs. Across all scientific and disease areas, programs are tailored to the different requirements of basic, translational, and clinical research. The Institute continues to place a high priority on maintaining an adequate number of competing research project grants to sustain productive research teams, support new investigators, and encourage innovative research. NINDS evaluates the mission relevance of all institute initiatives and of all requests to submit applications for large investigator-initiated projects. The Institute reviews programs in consultation with members of the NINDS Advisory Council and other outside experts, and the results inform decisions concerning future program directions and funding. Funds are included in R&D contracts to reflect NINDS's share of NIH-wide funding required to support several trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Therapies for Rare and Neglected Diseases program, the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet), and support for a new synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. For example, each IC that will benefit from the new synchrotron will provide funding to total NIH's commitment to support this new technology - $10 million.



Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Channels, Synapses, and Circuits:

Ion channels, synapses, and circuits of interacting nerve cells are fundamental components of the nervous system. Ion channels carry electrical currents in cells. Synapses are the connections by which nerve cells influence the activity of other nerve cells. Circuits formed by networks of interconnected nerve cells carry out the higher functions of the brain. NINDS supports research on how channels, synapses, and circuits operate in the healthy nervous system in the adult and developing brain and on neurological disorders in which these fundamental elements play a major role. The program encompasses basic, translational, and clinical research, all with the ultimate goal of advancing treatment and prevention. Epilepsy, which affects nearly one percent of the U.S. population, is a common disorder in which channels, synapses, and brain circuits are a major focus. The Institute continues its longstanding research program that has contributed to many advances in epilepsy treatment. The Epilepsy Benchmarks process brings the NIH, the research community, and non-governmental organizations together to establish goals for epilepsy research. In accord with those goals, NINDS is increasing emphasis on preventing the epilepsies and their progression, developing new therapeutic strategies, and addressing co-morbidities of epilepsy.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $189.997 million, which represents an increase of $3.502 million or +1.9 percent from the FY 2010 actual. In 2012, NINDS will continue to balance investigator-initiated research and research targeted to specific mission priorities, including projects funded through the Institute's translational research and clinical trials programs. Beginning in 2011 and continuing in 2012, a series of three major initiatives targets priorities that arise from the Epilepsy Benchmarks process, which for a decade has brought the research and patient communities together with NIH to set milestones to measure progress toward the goal of "no seizures, no side effects." First, a translational initiative supports exploratory projects and larger milestone driven preclinical therapy development projects through the NINDS Cooperative Program on Translational Research. These translational projects focus on interventions for treatment resistant epilepsy and on preventing epileptogenesis, that is, the development of epilepsy. Second, a EUREKA program for the epilepsies, based on the NIH Exceptional Unconventional Research Enabling Knowledge Acceleration program, supports innovative research on novel hypotheses or difficult problems in epilepsy which would have a high impact on epilepsy research. Third, the Epilepsy Centers without Walls program will accelerate progress in Benchmarks research areas that are not easily addressed through regular grant mechanisms. The structure and resources of the Centers will vary according to the specific needs and goals of the different Benchmark topics, but each Center will bring together the best multidisciplinary team of investigators, regardless of geographic locations, to focus for multiple years on a specific problem.

Portrait of a Program: Epilepsy Centers without Walls
FY 2012 Level: $9.7 million
FY 2010 Level: $0 million
Change: +$9.7 million

The Epilepsy Centers without Walls program will support multi-disciplinary teams of researchers to attack on key problems in epilepsy. Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures, or disturbances in brain electrical activity, that can cause a wide range of changes in sensation and behavior, including convulsions and loss of consciousness. Epilepsy affects more than 2 million people of all ages in the U.S. and have proportionately even greater impact in less developed nations. Although drugs or other interventions can control seizures for many people, the unmet needs of epilepsy have an enormous impact on public health. For about one third of people with epilepsy, current treatments do not control seizures or have unacceptable side effects. Epilepsy is also associated with serious co-morbidities beyond seizures. These include cognitive and behavioral problems and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP).

The Epilepsy Centers without Walls program will accelerate progress in Epilepsy Benchmarks research areas that are not easily addressed through regular grant mechanisms. The structure of the Centers will vary according to the specific needs and goals of the different Benchmark topics, but each Center will bring together the best multidisciplinary team of investigators, regardless of geographic locations, to focus for multiple years on a specific problem. NINDS plans to add approximately one center per year to a total of 5 centers when the program is fully underway. In 2011, NINDS is funding the first Center, which will take advantage of emerging genetics methods to identify genes that contribute to rare and common epilepsies. Based on discussion with the epilepsy research and advocacy community at an NINDS scientific workshop on SUDEP, the Institute also plans to fund exploratory grants in 2011 to develop collaborations suitable for a larger scale Center without walls focused on this topic. In 2012, in addition to continuing and potentially expanding support for genetics and SUDEP research, the Centers program will focus on preventing the development of epilepsy in people who are at risk and modifying the course or severity of the disease in those who develop epilepsy. NINDS discussed this Benchmarks priority intensively with the scientific community and patient advocates at a 2010 NINDS scientific workshop.


Infrastructure, Training programs, and Resources:

NINDS supports infrastructure for clinical research and clinical trials, training and career development, research resources, diversity in the research workforce, and research on minority health and health disparities that serves these activities throughout NINDS extramural programs. The Office of Clinical Research is continuing to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of NINDS clinical research programs, which include early phase clinical trials through large, multi-site phase III trials, as well as large epidemiological studies and other clinical research. Among ongoing clinical research infrastructure programs, the Neurological Emergency Treatment trials Network (NETT) brings together experts from neurology, neurosurgery, emergency medicine, and other medical disciplines to conduct clinical trials for stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), continuous seizures, and other neurological emergencies and the Specialized Programs for Translational Research in Stroke (SPOTRIAS) centers are developing acute interventions for stroke. NINDS is also working with the research community to develop common data elements that will enable comparison and sharing of clinical data across studies. The Office of Minority Health and Research (OMHR) coordinates programs to attract, retain, and develop minority neuroscience health and research professionals and reserach to reduce population disparities for disorders of the nervous system. The Office of Training and Career Development oversees NINDS grant programs to support training and career development of investigators at all career levels who have research interests in line with the mission of the Institute. The Office of International Activities supports the coordination and development of programs and initiatives that foster international research, training and collaborations that are relevant to the institute's mission.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $240.599 million, which represents an increase of $4.678 million or +2.0 percent from the FY 2010 actual. In addition to continuing ongoing programs to support clinical research, including the NETT and SPOTRIAS networks and the common data elements program, a new multi-site clinical network to accelerate early phase clinical testing of novel therapies. NINDS programs in training and career development are also continuing. Over the last year, two NINDS Strategic Planning Advisory Panels on Health Disparities and on Workforce Diversity undertook an intensive, data driven assessment of the Institutes activities in these areas. The panel reports, presented to the NANDS Council in 2011, will guide NINDS activities in these areas.

Portrait of a Program: Network for early phase clinical trials of neurological disorders
FY 2012 Level: $12.75 million
FY 2010 Level: $0 million
Change: +$12.75 million

Exciting new treatment strategies for neurological disorders are rapidly moving toward readiness for clinical testing because of advances in neuroscience and increased investment in preclinical therapy development. Lack of infrastructure for early phase clinical testing is often a major impediment to early phase clinical testing of new therapies for neurological disorders. To address this barrier to therapy development, NINDS is developing a new multi-site clinical research network that will improve the speed and effectiveness of early phase testing of therapies for neurological disorders. The network is explicitly designed to protect intellectual property so that it can test the most promising candidate treatments whether they arise from foundations, industry, or academic therapy development programs. The network is also especially important for rare disorders, including pediatric diseases, for which treatment opportunities are rapidly emerging and infrastructure is especially challenging. In addition to conducting early phase clinical trials for common and rare disorders of children and adults, the network will have the flexibility to undertake a range of preparatory clinical studies, such as biomarkers development and validation.

In fiscal year 2012 NINDS will establish the Data Coordinating Center and Clinical Coordinating Center for the network. When fully developed, the network will include approximately 25 clinical sites that will carry out multiple clinical studies simultaneously using the centralized data and clinical coordinating centers. The network will efficiently handle regulatory and contractual issues, protect intellectual property, rapidly engage appropriate teams of researchers and clinical sites, and decrease the time and cost between trial design and execution. By maintaining continuous support for clinical trials infrastructure and a breadth of clinical expertise, including clinical research coordinators, the network will reduce delays in building infrastructure for each new trial, improve the speed of enrollment of trial participants, and foster the highest quality clinical research. The goal of this network is to take full advantage of the emerging opportunities to accelerate the pace of therapy development for neurological disorders that affect children and adults.


Neural Environment:

Non-neuronal cells, which outnumber nerve cells in the brain, maintain the local environment around nerve cells, fight infections, and control which molecules get into the brain from the circulating blood through the blood-brain barrier. Neurological disorders may result when non-neuronal cells are compromised, as in multiple sclerosis; when these cells themselves become aggressors, as in brain tumors; when viruses, bacteria, or parasites infect the nervous system, as in NeuroAIDS; or when the blood supply to brain cells is compromised, as in stroke. NINDS supports basic, translational, and clinical research on the normal control of the neural environment and on the diseases in which its disruption plays a major role, with the goal of improving prevention and treatment. Over many years, the program has made substantial contributions to the development of treatments for stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $239.839 million, which represents an increase of 4.421 million or +1.9 percent from the FY 2010 actual. NINDS will continue to balance research targeted to specific priorities and investigator-initiated research, including research through the Institute's translational research and clinical trials programs. The Institute is continuing to collaborate with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in support of Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE) center grants that support highly interactive translational research to improve prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of brain tumor or other nervous system tumors.


Neurodegeneration:

For many neurodegenerative disorders, risk increases in older people. Thus, these diseases present an increasing human and economic challenge to the U.S. as our population ages. Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementias, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease are among the neurodegenerative diseases that affect adults. NINDS contributions to improving treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders range from studies of disease mechanism that identify potential therapeutic targets, through intensive preclinical translation research, and multi-site clinical trials that test the safety and efficacy of new therapies. One major insight from neurodegeneration research is the recognition that shared mechanisms contribute to multiple neurodegenerative diseases, and that similar therapeutic strategies may be effective for different disorders. Taking advantage of these commonalities among neurodegenerative disorders to advance treatment and prevention continues to be a major priority for NINDS research.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $181.565 million, which represents an increase of $3.346 million or +1.9 percent from the FY 2010 actual. NINDS neurodegeneration research will continue to balance investigator-initiated research and solicited research, including projects funded through the Institute's translational research and clinical trials programs. The Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease Centers of Excellence program is continuing, with increased emphasis on translational research. Beginning in 2011 and increasing in 2012, NINDS is developing the Parkinson's disease Biomarkers Identification Network (PD-BIN). This initiative supports the development of biomarkers, which are objectively measureable indicators of the disease process that should significantly accelerate the development of treatments that stop disease progression before there is major disability. The Institute is also continuing a public-private initiative begun in 2010 to validate molecular targets for interventions that slow the progression of Huntington's disease.

Portrait of a Program: Parkinson's Disease Biomarkers Identification Network (PD-BIN)
FY 2012 Level: $12 million
FY 2010 Level: $0 million
Change: +$12 million

The Parkinson's Disease Biomarkers Identification Network (PD-BIN) supports the development of biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD). Biomarkers are measurable indicators of the underlying disease process that are essential for developing treatments that stop disease progression before there is major disability. PD is a neurodegenerative disorder, that is, a disease in which brain cells progressively die. Current treatments improve symptoms but do not slow the underlying loss of brain cells, and most people with PD progress to severe disability over 10 to 20 years. Developing treatments that slow neurodegeneration presents considerable challenges. Clinical trials take years and large numbers of participants because PD progression is slow and variable progression and symptomatic therapy masks progression. Scientific opportunities now warrant a concerted effort to develop and validate biomarkers that can dramatically reduce the time necessary for clinical trials to determine whether therapies are slowing disease progression. Among the scientific advances are the discovery of several gene defects that can cause PD or influence susceptibility, new understanding of cell pathways in PD, and targeted brain imaging labels. Consequently, several potential biomarkers are available but lack validation.

At a 2010 workshop, NINDS discussed the best strategy to develop and validate biomarkers with the scientific, clinical, industry, and patient advocacy communities. The successful public-private Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) also informed the design of the PD-BIN, will validate candidate biomarkers and develop new candidates through a public-private partnership. The initiative will support a multi-site, multi-project network that will collect clinical data and biological specimens from a core cohort of people with early PD and without PD. In FY2011, PD-BIN is establishing a Clinical Coordinating Center and a Data Coordinating Center and selecting the most promising biomarkers for study. In 2012, PD-BIN may also solicit proposals for discovery of new biomarkers projects to be validated at a later stage. Advances in biomarkers research may also arise from alternative discovery cohorts with particular genetic, geographic, or environmental exposure characteristics, or people on whom researchers are collecting extensive clinical data for other studies. PD-BIN is a multifaceted program with a clear goal -developing validated biomarkers to accelerate development of therapies that slow or stop the progression of PD.


Neurogenetics:

Gene defects cause hundreds of diseases that affect the nervous system. Symptoms may be evident early in infancy or only emerge later, even in old age. Neurogenetic disorders include the ataxias, Down syndrome, dystonia, lysosomal storage diseases, muscular dystrophies, peripheral neuropathies, Rett syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, and Tourette syndrome, among many others. NIH research has identified hundreds of gene defects that are responsible for these diseases. Research building on these discoveries has developed better diagnostics, animal models for testing therapies, and rationally designed interventions that are now showing promise in animals and beginning to enter clinical testing. In addition to disorders caused by defects in single genes, multiple genes interacting with environmental influences contribute to the susceptibility and progression of common neurological disorders, including autism, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Applying advanced genomics methods to identify gene defects that contribute to diseases, both common and rare, and translating insights from those discoveries into therapies continues to be a major priority for NINDS. NINDS resources for genetics research include the NINDS Human Genetics Repository, which fosters sharing among investigators. In addition to investigator-initiated research, catalytic resources, and targeted solicitations to unmet research opportunities, NINDS supports scientific workshops on neurogenetic disorders that stimulate the research community to discuss the state of the science and opportunities for progress.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $188.123 million, which represents an increase of $3.466 million or +1.9 percent from the FY 2010 actual. NINDS will continue to support investigator-initiated grants and targeted activities in neurogenetics, including projects funded through the Institute's translational research and clinical trials programs. The Institute is increasing support for next generation sequencing efforts to determine the genetic contributions to common and rare neurological disorders. In 2012, the Institute is continuing its support for the Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Centers, which have a strong translational research component, and for the Autism Centers for Excellence; both of these are trans-NIH programs. The NINDS is also collaborating with the NICHD on an initiative to develop innovative therapies and tools for screen-able disorders and with NIMH on autism research.


Repair and Plasticity:

NINDS supports extensive research on spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and on repairing damage to the nervous system from disease or trauma from these and other causes. Longstanding NINDS support for the study of neural stem cells and for research on the brain's innate capacity to adapt through "plasticity" has contributed to substantial progress which has potential applications to many neurological disorders. For more than thirty years, the NINDS Neural Prosthesis program has successfully pioneered research on devices that restore nervous system function lost to injury or disease. Current emphasis areas in neural prosthesis research include a new generation of devices that take control signals directly from the brain and improving technology for deep brain stimulation, which has proven effective or is promising for treating several neurological disorders. Stimulated by the high rate of traumatic brain injury among U.S. military personnel, in recent years NINDS has enhanced coordination of TBI research within NIH and across the several Federal Agencies that support such research, including the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. Trans-agency collaborative workshops have focused on TBI classification, the unique issues of TBI from blast, combination therapies for TBI, and common data elements for TBI research to facilitate sharing and comparison of data from different studies, among other topics.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $141.935 million, which represents an increase of $2.616 million or +1.9 percent from the FY 2010 actual. NINDS continues to balance investigator-initiated research and solicitations, including projects funded through the Institute's translational research and clinical trials programs. The Institute is continuing its support for the Facilities of Research Excellence in Spinal Cord Injury. Two program announcements relating to the active Neural Prosthesis Program are continuing in 2012, with focus on advanced neural prosthetics and on advanced tools and technologies for deep brain stimulation.


Systems and Cognitive Neuroscience:

Systems of interconnected nerve circuits in the brain, spinal cord, and body control learning, memory, attention, language, thinking, emotion, movement, the sleep-wake cycle, pain perception, and other complex behaviors. NINDS supports research on how systems of nerve cells carry out these functions and on counteracting the disruptive effects of neurological disorders on neural circuits. Stroke, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases are among the disorders that affect cognition and other complex behaviors. Migraine and other chronic pain conditions are very prevalent disorders that are important areas of emphasis in this program. As the largest NIH supporter of research on pain, NINDS is a leader of the NIH Pain Consortium, through which NIH Institutes and Centers coordinate research activities on pain.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $187.014 million, which represents an increase of $3.447 million or +1.9 percent from the FY 2010 actual. NINDS balances investigator initiated research and solicitations, including projects funded through the Institute's translational research and clinical trials programs. Pain continues to be a major area of emphasis, with continuing solicitations on the neurobiology of migraine and on mechanisms, models, measurement and management of pain. NINDS is also actively supporting the NIH Blueprint program to facilitate the partnering of pain scientists and non-pain neuroscientists from the field of neural plasticity to capture insights and expertise from disciplines where transitions from health to disease have been extensively examined. The goal is to support initial collaborations that will lead to new applications for highly innovative projects centered on similar studies of the transition from acute to chronic pain. Other continuing activities focus on the cognitive problems of Parkinson's disease and on collaborative studies on the central nervous system and glycemia, which supports new interdisciplinary collaborations by researchers in neuroscience and in diabetes/metabolism to further understand the mechanisms by which the brain controls glucose levels and the consequences to the brain of derangements in these mechanisms.


Translational Research:

In 2009, following the advice of the NINDS external Strategic Planning Advisory Panel on Translational Research, NINDS established the Office of Translational Research (OTR). OTR leads and coordinates NINDS preclinical therapy development activities, which are supported throughout the Institute's scientific programs. OTR manages the Institute's most comprehensive preclinical therapy development program, the Cooperative Program in Translational Research. This program supports teams of academic and small business investigators to develop therapies for neurological disorders. Because the failure rate is high in therapy development, milestone-based funding enables the OTR to stop projects in this program that are no longer making progress and to shift funds to more promising opportunities. OTR also directs the longstanding Anticonvulsant Screening Program (ASP). Since the ASP began more than 30 years ago, it has established more than 500 public private partnerships that contributed to advancing more than 50 drug candidates to clinical trials, resulting in 8 drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for epilepsy and other conditions. NINDS chose spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to pilot another approach to drug development. With experts from academia, industry, and the FDA, the SMA Project designed a drug development plan and is implementing the plan through a "virtual pharma" organization. The Project is working toward certification of its most promising drug candidate for a clinical trial by the end of 2011. Building on lessons from the SMA Project, OTR is taking a leading role in the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Grand Challenge on Neurotherapeutics, which is now underway. The challenge goal is to develop truly novel drugs that transform the treatment of nervous system diseases. These and other NINDS translational programs integrate with NIH-wide programs, including the Molecular Libraries and the Rapid Access to Interventional Development (RAID) programs, for both of which OTR also plays a leading role. Beginning in 2010, following advice from an advisory panel from government, academic, and industry, OTR has also taken on leadership of NINDS SBIR and STTR programs, working with scientific experts throughout the extramural program.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $78.290 million, which represents an increase of $1.443 million or +1.9 percent from the FY 2010 actual. This includes programs led by the Office of Translational Research, but does not include all NINDS translation research activities, which are also supported through budgets of other program areas as appropriate to the disease of focus. Among the OTR led programs is the Institute's major preclinical therapy development program, the Cooperative Program in Translational Research, which continues in 2012 with single component and multi-component milestone-driven therapy development projects, including small business awards, as well as smaller exploratory or developmental projects. The Anticonvulsant Screening Program is also continuing in 2012. With the renewal of the major contract for screening of potential drugs, this program is placing increased emphasis on finding drugs for treatment resistant epilepsy and drugs that prevent the development of epilepsy, in accordance with the Epilepsy Benchmarks priorities. In 2012, OTR is also leading the NIH Neuroscience Blueprint Grand Challenge in Neurotherapeutics, which begins its first preclinical therapy development projects in 2011. OTR has also taken on leadership of NINDS SBIR/STTR. Specific SBIR/STTR solicitations continuing in 2012 focus on the development of advanced tools and technologies for cerebrospinal fluid shunts, which are used for the treatment of hydrocephalus, and on the development of improved technology for deep brain stimulation, which the FDA has approved for the treatment of essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia and shows promise for several other neurological and psychiatric disorders.


Intramural Research:

The NINDS Intramural Research Program conducts basic, translational, and clinical research on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland, which is one of the largest communities of neuroscientists in the world. Among the unique resources of the NIH campus, the Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Center is a hospital totally dedicated to clinical research and the NIH Porter Neuroscience Research Center integrates neuroscience across NIH institutes and disciplinary boundaries. Ongoing Intramural activities include a joint brain tumor program with the National Cancer Institute, the Suburban Hospital and Washington Hospital Center Stroke centers, development of neurosurgical interventions, and research and therapy development for multiple sclerosis, neurogenetic diseases, movement disorders, stroke, viral diseases of the nervous system, and other disorders. The Intramural program also conducts extensive research on the normal development and function of the nervous system and has been a leader in development of novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategies for detecting normal and abnormal function of the brain.

Budget Policy: The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $158.437 million, which represents a decrease of $0.105 million or -0.1 percent from the FY 2010 actual. The program continues to revitalize clinical research with the recruitment of new investigators, most recently establishing a new laboratory in pediatric neuromuscular diseases and neurogenetics, and is also implementing plans for a program in translational neuroscience. The program is also continuing to push the frontiers of brain imaging for basic and clinical neuroscience with the acquisition of a more powerful (11.7 Tesla) Magnetic Resonance Imaging device.


Research Management and Support (RMS):

NINDS RMS activities provide administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support in the review, award, and monitoring of research grants, training awards and research and development contracts. RMS functions also encompass strategic planning, coordination, and evaluation of the Institute's programs, regulatory compliance, international coordination, and liaison with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2012 budget estimate for this program is $58.454 million, which represents an increase of $1.991 or +3.5 percent over the FY2010 actual.


Budget Authority by Object
(Dollars in Thousands)
  FY 2010
Actual
FY 2012
P B
Increase or
Decrease
Percent Change
Total compensable workyears:        
   Full-time employment 497 499 2 0.4%
   Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0 0.0%
   Average ES salary $168,286 $168,286 $0 0.0%
   Average GM/GS grade 12.1 12.1 0.0 0.0%
   Average GM/GS salary $96,857 $96,857 0 0.0%
   Average salary, grade established by act of
July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207)
$99,975 $99,975 0 0.0%
   Average salary of ungraded positions 122,527 122,527 0 0.0%


OBJECT CLASSES
F Y 2010 Actual F Y 2012 Estimate Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Personnel Compensation:        
11.1 Full-time permanent $27,129 $27,288 $159 0.6%
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 22,447 22,573 2126 0.6%
11.5 Other personnel compensation 1,451 1,461 10 0.7%
11.7 Military personnel 710 736 26 3.7%
11.8 Special personnel services payments 7,077 7,114 37 0.5%
Total, Personnel Compensation 73,920 74,373 453 0.6%
12.0 Personnel benefits 14,693 14,785 92 0.6%
12.2 Military personnel benefits 413 416 3 0.7%
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal, Pay Costs 73,920 74,373 453 0.6%
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons 3,757 3,816 59 1.6%
22.0 Transportation of things 253 257 4 1.6%
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 1 1 0 0.0%
23.2 Rental payments to others 74 80 6 8.1%
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 946 961 15 1.6%
24.0 Printing and reproduction 291 315 24 8.2%
25.1 Consulting services 2,177 2,192 15 0.7%
25.2 Other services 21,365 22,005 640 3.0%
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 135,317 147,861 12,544 9.3%
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 4,043 4,020 (23) -0.6%
25.5 Research and development contracts 32,175 23,681 (8,494) -26.4%
25.6 Medical care 560 556 (4) -0.7%
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 5,274 5,293 19 0.4%
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0 0.0%
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services 200,911 205,608 4,697 2.3%
26.0 Supplies and materials 9,012 8,954 (58) -0.6%
31.0 Equipment 11,653 11,612 (41) -0.4%
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0 0.0%
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0 0.0%
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 1,334,629 1,358,275 23,646 1.8%
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0 0.0%
43.0 Interest and dividends 1 1 0 0.0%
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 1,561,528 1,589,880 28,352 1.8%
Total Budget Authority by Object 1,635,448 1,664,253 28,805 1.8%

Includes F T E's which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund for Medical Research


Salaries and Expenses
(Dollars in Thousands)
OBJECT CLASSES F Y 2010
Actual
F Y 2012
PB
Increase or
Decrease
Percent
Change
Personnel Compensation:        
  Full-time permanent (11.1) $27,129 $27,288 $159 0.6%
  Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 22,447 22,573 126 0.6%
  Other personnel compensation (11.5) 1,451 1,461 10 0.7%
  Military personnel (11.7) 710 736 26 3.7%
  Special personnel services payments (11.8) 7,077 7,114 37 0.5%
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) 58,814 59,172 358 0.6%
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) 14,693 14,785 92 0.6%
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 413 416 3 0.7%
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal, Pay Costs 73,920 74,373 453 0.6%
Travel (21.0) 3,757 3,816 59 1.6%
Transportation of things (22.0) 253 257 4 1.6%
Rental payments to others (23.2) 74 80 6 8.1%
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 946 961 15 1.6%
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 291 315 24 8.2%
Other Contractual Services:        
  Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 2,177 2,192 15 0.7%
  Other services (25.2) 21,365 22,005 640 3.0%
  Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 84,192 85,062 870 1.0%
  Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 4,043 4,020 (23) -0.6%
  Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7) 5,274 5,293 19 0.4%
  Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal Other Contractual Services 117,051 118,572 1,521 1.3%
Supplies and materials (26.0) 9,012 8,954 (58) -0.6%
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 131,384 132,955 1,571 1.2%
Total, Administrative Costs 205,304 207,328 2,024 1.0%


Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (F T E's)
OFFICE/DIVISION F Y 2010 Actual F Y 2011 CR F Y 2012 PB
  Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total
Office of the Director 52 0 52 52 0 52 52 0 52
Division of Extramural Research 87 0 87 88 0 88 88 0 88
Division of Intramural Research 328 5 333 330 4 334 330 4 334
Division of Translational Research 8 1 9 8 1 9 8 1 9
Division of Clinical Research 11 0 11 11 0 11 11 0 11
Division of Minority Health Research 5 0 5 5 0 5 5 0 5
Total 491 6 497 494 5 499 494 5 499
Includes F T E's which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund for Medical Research
F T E's supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements 0 0             0

 

Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (F T E's) continued
FISCAL YEAR Average GM/GS Grade
2008 11.8
2009 11.8
2010 12.1
2011 12.1
2012 12.1


Detail of Positions
(Dollars in Thousands)
GRADE F Y 2010 Actual F Y 2011 CR F Y 2012 PB
Total, ES Positions 1 1 1
Total, ES Salary 168,286 168,286 168,286
GM/GS-15 34 34 34
GM/GS-14 46 47 47
GM/GS-13 71 71 71
GS-12 55 56 56
GS-11 44 44 44
GS-10 6 6 6
GS-9 25 25 25
GS-8 21 21 21
GS-7 3 3 3
GS-6 1 1 1
GS-5 1 1 1
GS-4 0 0 0
GS-3 1 1 1
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
 Subtotal 308 310 310
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):      
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 3 3 3
Senior Grade 1 1 1
Full Grade 0 0 0
Senior Assistant Grade 1 1 1
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
 Subtotal 5 5 5
Ungraded 206 208 208
Total permanent positions 315 317 317
Total positions, end of year 524 526 526
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year 497 499 499
Average ES salary 168,286 168,286 168,286
Average GM/GS grade 12.1 12.1 12.1
Average GM/GS salary 96,857 96,857 96,857


New Positions Requested
  FY 2012
  Grade Number Annual Salary
Health Scientist Administrator GS-14/15 1 $126,533
Staff Scientist GS-12 1 $84,855
Total Requested   2 $211,388

Last updated May 11, 2012