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NINDS 2010 Congressional Justification


Department of Health and Human Services
National Institutes of Health
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
2010 Fiscal Year Budget
Congressional Justification


Table of Contents

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Organization Chart

Organization chart for NINDS. The chart shows 8 boxes, the Director box at the top with 5 beneath and 2 support staff. The Director of NINDS is Dr. Story C. Landis. The director's support staff are Deputy Director Dr. Walter Koroshetz and Executive Officer Ms. Joellen Harper Austen. The 5 direct reports are: Division of Extramural Activities Dr. Robert Finkelstein, Division of Intramural Research Dr. Alan Koretsky, Office of Translational Research, Dr Jill Heemskerk, Acting, the Office of Clinical Research Vacant and the Office of Minority Health Research Dr. Al Gordon.


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National Institutes of Health
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to neurological disorders and stroke, [$1,593,344,000] $1,612,745,000 (Department of Health and Human Services Appropriation Act, 2009)


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Amounts Available for Obligation 1/

Amounts Available for Obligation
Source of FundingF Y 2008 ActualF Y 2009 EstimateF Y 2010 PB
Appropriation$1,571,353,000$1,593,344,000$1,612,745,000
Type 1 Diabetes000
Rescission-27,452,00000
Supplemental8,212,00000
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation1,552,113,0001,593,344,0001,612,745,000
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI)-2,557,00000
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI)2,557,00000
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority1,552,113,0001,593,344,0001,612,745,000
Unobligated balance, start of year000
Unobligated balance, end of year000
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority1,552,113,0001,593,344,0001,612,745,000
Unobligated balance lapsing-13,00000
Total obligations1,552,100,0001,593,344,0001,612,745,000

1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account: FY 2008 - $8,218,000 FY 2009 Estimate - $8,442,000 FY 2010 Estimate - $8,544,000 Excludes $411,102 Actual in FY 2008; Estimate $423,237 in FY 2009 and Estimate $429,530 in FY 2010 for royalties.


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Budget mechanism table

(Dollars in Thousands)
Budget Mechanism - Total
MECHANISMFY 2008
Actual
FY 2009
Estimate
FY 2010
PB
Change
Research Grants:NumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmountNumberAmount
Research Projects:
  Noncompeting1,896$757,7771,854$811,4131,829$822,897(25)$1,484
  Administrative supplements(121)6,879(123)7,000(44)2,500(79)(4,500)
    Competing698270,318616245,722616250,51304,791
      Subtotal, RPGs2,5941,034,9742,4701,064,1352,4451,075,910(25)11,775

SBIR/STTR
11137,74111237,92611338,3761450
      Subtotal, RPGs2,7051,072,7152,5821,102,0612,5581,114,286(24)12,225

Research Centers:
  Specialized/comprehensive7996,4518199,15281100,63901,487
  Clinical research00000000
  Biotechnology050000000
  Comparative medicine00000000
  Research Centers in Minority Institutions00000000
      Subtotal, Centers7996,5018199,15281100,63901,487

Other Research:
   Research careers30449,44231250,77731451,5392762
   Cancer education00000000
   Cooperative clinical research617,831638,042638,1630121
   Biomedical research support00000000
   Minority biomedical research support387138953908013
   Other6212,2066412,5366412,7240188
      Subtotal, Other Research43070,35044272,25044473,33421,084
   Total Research Grants3,2141,239,5663,1051,273,4633,0831,288,259(22)14,796,720

Research Training:

FTTPs
 
FTTPs
 
FTTPs
   
   Individual awards41615,33342015,48642815,7898303
   Institutional awards35016,70836517,42636217,287(3)-139
   Total, Training76632,04178532,91279033,0765164

Research & development contracts
9782,2579884,1609885,42201,262
           (SBIR/STTR)(1)(87)(1)(87)(1)(87)(0)(0)

F T E's F T E's F T E's F T E's 
Intramural research347144,982336148,317343150,54272,225
Research management and support15753,26715254,49215555,4463954
Total, NINDS5041,552,1134881,593,3444981,612,7451019,401

Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research


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Budget Authority by Program

BA by Program
(Dollars in Thousands)
 FY 2006
Actual
FY 2007
Actual
FY 2008
Actual
FY 2008
Comparable
FY 2009
Estimate
FY 2010
PB

Change
Extramural Research
Detail:
FTEsAmountFTEsAmountFTEsAmountFTEsAmountFTEsAmountFTEsAmountFTEsAmount
Channels, Synapses & Circuits $223,127 $193,083 $186,310 $186,663 $191,719 $193,955 $ 2,236
Neural Environment 333,020 330,855 372,228 372,932 383,031 387,501 4,470
Neurodegeneration 186,827 192,755 194,628 194,996 200,278 202,615 2,337
Neurogenetics 205,461 211,039 196,263 196,635 201,961 204,317 2,356
Repair & Plasticity 141,135 154,237 151,261 151,547 155,652 157,468 1,816
Systems & Cognitive Neuroscience 189,691 191,996 185,544 185,895 190,931 193,157 2,226
Technology Development,
Infrastructure & Resources
 60,709 64,555 65,073 65,196 66,963 67,744 781


Subtotal, Extramural
 1,339,970 1,338,520 1,351,307 1,353,864 1,390,535 1,406,757 16,222

Intramural research
374142,648364142,234347144,982347144,982336148,317343150,54272,225

Res. management & support
15251,08515352,23415753,26715753,26715254,49215555,4463954

TOTAL
5261,533,7035171,532,9885041,549,5565041,552,1134881,593,3444981,612,7451019,401

Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research


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Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below.  Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2010 budget request for NINDS, which is $19.401 million more than the FY 2009 Estimate, for a total of $1,612.745 million.

Research Project Grants (+$11.775 million, total $1,075.910 million)

NINDS will support a total of 2,445 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2010.  Noncompeting RPGs will decrease by 25 awards and increase by $11.484 million.  Competing RPGs will remain at the same number of awards and increase by $4.791 million.  The NIH Budget policy for RPGs in FY 2010 includes a 2.0% inflationary increase in noncompeting awards and for the average costs in competing grants. 

Research Careers (+$0.762 million, total $51.539 million)

NINDS will continue to support the Pathway to Independence Program by funding an additional 14 awards in FY 2010.  Funds will become available as career awards convert to the noncompeting RPG mechanism.

Research & Development Contracts (+$1.262 million, total $85.422 million)

NINDS will increase funding for research contracts to include a new Medicinal Chemistry for Neurotherapeutics contract.  The need for medicinal chemistry in the NIH community has grown in recent years as non-drug compounds with therapeutic potential have been identified in many disease areas.


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Summary of changes

Summary of Changes
F Y 2009 estimate$1,593,344,000
F Y 2010 estimated budget authority1,612,745,000
Net change19,401,000
 2009 Current
Estimate Base
Change from Base
 BudgetBudget
CHANGESF T E'sAuthorityF T E'sAuthority
 A.  Built-in:
    1.  Intramural research:
    
        a.  Annualization of January
             2009 pay increase
 $49,098,000 $587,000
        b.  January F Y 2010 pay increase 49,098,000 736,000
        d.  Payment for centrally furnished services 24,925,000 499,000
        e.  Increased cost of laboratory supplies,
             materials, and other expenses
 74,294,000 1,220,000
        Subtotal   3,042,000

    2.  Research management and support:
    
        a.  Annualization of January  
             2009 pay increase
 $21,140,000 $253,000
        b.  January F Y 2010 pay increase 21,140,000 317,000
        d.  Payment for centrally furnished services 12,366,000 247,000
        e.  Increased cost of laboratory supplies,
             materials, and other expenses
 20,986,000 352,000
        Subtotal   1,169,000

        Subtotal, Built-in
   4,211,000
Summary of Changes, continued
 2009 Current
 Estimate BaseChange from Base
CHANGESNo.AmountNo.Amount
B.  Program:    
    1.  Research project grants:    
        a.  Noncompeting1,854$818,413,000(25)$6,984,000
        b.  Competing 616245,722,00004,791,000
        c.  SBIR/STTR11237,926,0001450,000
                Total2,5821,102,061,000(24)12,224,000
    2.  Research centers8199,152,00001,487,000
    3.  Other research44272,250,00021,084,000
    4.  Research training78532,912,0005164,000
    5.  Research and development contracts9884,160,00001,262,000
         Subtotal, extramural    16.222,000
 F T E's F T E's 
    6.  Intramural research                                   336148,317,0007(817,000)
    7.  Research management and support15254,492,0003(215,000)
        Subtotal, program 1,593,344,000 15,190,000
          Total changes488 1019,401,000


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Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTE's:

Funding Levels by Fiscal Year. Bar chart indicating funding levels for NINDS from 2006 through 2010. 2006, $1533.0 - 2007, $1534.9 - 2008, $1552.1 - 2009, $1593.3 - 2010, $1612.7

Bar chart indicating F T E's by Fiscal Year from 2006 through 2010. 2006, 526 - 2007, 517 - 2008, 504 - 2009, 488 - 2010, 498

Distribution by Mechanism:

FY 2010 Budget Mechanism (Dollars in Thousands) Pie chart indicating funding for fiscal year 2010 by budget mechanism. The pie has 7 slices. From largest to smallest the amounts are: Research Project Grants, $1,114,000 - 69%; Intramural Research, $151,157 - 9%; Research Centers, $101,000 - 6%; R&D Contracts, $85,000 - 5%; Other Research, $73,000 - 5%; RMS, $55,000 - 4%; Research Training, $33,000 - 2%

Change by Selected Mechanisms:

FY 2010 Estimate. Percent Change from FY 2009 Mechanism. Bar chart showing percent change by mechanism. There are 7 bars. From top to bottom they are: Research Project Grants, 1.1%; Research Centers, 1.5%; Other Research, 1.5%; Research Training, 0.5%; R&D Contracts, 1.5%; Intramural Research, 1.5%; Resource Management and Support, 1.8%


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Justification of Budget Request
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and Title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

Budget Authority:
 F Y 2008
Appropriation
F Y 2009
Omnibus
F Y 2009
Recovery Act
F Y 2010
President's Budget
F Y 2010 +/- 2009 Omnibus
BA1,522,113,000$1,593,334,000$402,912,000$1,612,745,000$19,401,000
BA504488 49810

This document provides justification for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 activities of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), including NIH/AIDS activities. Details of the FY 2010 HIV/AIDS activities are in the "Office of AIDS Research (OAR)" Section of the Overview. Details on the Common Fund are located in the Overview, Volume One. Program funds are allocated as follows:  Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

In FY 2009, a total of $402,912,000 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds were transferred from the Office of the Director. These funds will be used to support scientific research opportunities that help support the goals of the ARRA. The ARRA allows NIH to execute these funds via any NIH funding mechanism. Funds are available until September 30, 2010. These funds are not included in the FY 2009 Omnibus amounts reflected in this document.

NINDS Director's Overview

The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to reduce the burden of neurological disorders through research. Diseases of the nervous system affect millions of people in every age group and segment of society in the United States and throughout the world. Because of the complexity of the brain, its sensitivity and inaccessibility, and the multiplicity of neurological diseases, disorders of the brain present formidable scientific and public health challenges.

In confronting these challenges, NINDS balances investment across many competing opportunities and responsibilities. Hundreds of disorders affect the nervous system, with a myriad of causes. Dementias, stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, and neuropathies are among those that affect millions of people. Uncommon disorders carry a special responsibility because industry is unlikely to target rare diseases, despite the exceptional opportunities for progress. For all disorders, NINDS attends to short term opportunities for improving care and to the long term goals of prevention and cure. Basic studies lay foundations for the future, translational research turns scientific insights into therapy, and clinical trials test interventions. Throughout, NINDS engages the insight and creativity of the scientific community through investigator-initiated research, but also targets critical needs and opportunities. Finally, NINDS encourages new investigators, while sustaining productive, established researchers and interdisciplinary teams of scientists and physicians. Balancing these competing priorities is challenging, but scientific advances are revealing common underlying mechanisms and therapeutic strategies that may apply to multiple diseases, so progress against one disorder often opens opportunities for others.

A decade ago, an NINDS strategic plan established a broad vision for neuroscience. Disease specific plans, coordinating across the NIH, followed for stroke, epilepsy, brain tumor, Parkinson's disease, muscular dystrophy, tuberous sclerosis, ataxia telangiectasia, autism, muscular dystrophy, and other disorders.   Scientific workshops on many other neurological diseases including autism, for which NINDS shares responsibility with other Institutes, also brought together NIH, patient, and scientific communities to set research priorities. To pursue these priorities, NINDS enhanced investigator-initiated basic, translational, and clinical research programs, developed catalytic resources, and targeted initiatives to priorities for specific disorders. Among these actions are innovative programs to develop therapies, including the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Project, the Neuroprotection Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease, and the Cooperative Program in Translational Research. 

Now, a decade after the last strategic plan, an intensive NINDS planning process is examining all Institute programs and making recommendations for the future. The planning process is engaging experts from NIH, academia, and industry, and stakeholders from the community. "Blue Sky" discussions are shaping an overarching vision for NINDS within the changing landscape of public and private research. Specific planning groups have focused on basic, translational, and clinical research, and on the spectrum of neurological diseases. Subsequent planning will focus on training and on health disparities. NINDS has provided planning panels with unprecedented access to information about what the Institute has done, so that they can recommend what the Institute can do better. The National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NANDS) Council discussed panel recommendations in February 2009, and NINDS will consolidate a strategic plan after further input from the Council and the public.

For 2009, NINDS is setting priorities based on guidance from the planning process, discussions with the NANDS Council, interactions with the scientific community and the public, and input from Congress. Scientific opportunity and expectations from the NIH budget doubling have driven grant application numbers up, and thus the percentage funded down to a level that restrains innovation, hinders productivity, and discourages new and established investigators. The Institute has therefore put a high priority on supporting investigator-initiated research, sustaining established research teams, encouraging new investigators, and fostering innovative research. Because translating science into therapies is critical to the NINDS mission, the Institute renewed the Cooperative Program in Translational Research, which supports preclinical therapy development in academic and small business laboratories, and improved monitoring of milestones for continued funding of each project. The NINDS Intramural Research Program is continuing to revitalize its clinical and translational programs, including ground-breaking advancement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain.

The new strategic plan will guide NINDS actions for 2010. The Institute is establishing an Office of Translation Research, a medicinal chemistry resource to support drug development, and will solicit translational and pilot clinical studies for advanced neural prosthetics through milestone-gated funding mechanisms. The Institute is also establishing an Office of Clinical Research that will implement recommendations to increase the effectiveness of clinical trials and studies. Among other priorities for 2010, NINDS is increasing support for its autism research program, which includes research on the neurological basis of autism and related disorders and on potential therapeutic strategies, the Autism Centers for Excellence, and targeted solicitations, including joint initiatives with NIMH, NICHD and other parts of NIH. Among continuing autism activities for FY2010 is a program announcement on the shared neurobiology of autism and fragile X syndrome. NINDS is also increasing support for research on cancer in the nervous system through investigator-initiated basic, translational, and clinical research programs. Joint efforts with NCI include the pediatric and adult brain tumor consortia and an active intramural research program. An initiative on pain research, another priority area, will capitalize on new insights from basic neuroscience research; for example, cellular mechanisms that underlie normal learning and memory may also contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. Finally, with support from the planning process and the NANDS Council, NINDS will continue to place a high priority on investigator-initiated research, new investigators, and innovation as the Institute considers initiatives targeting priorities that emerge from the planning process.

Overall Budget Policy:  

NINDS balances investigator-initiated research with targeted solicitations that address mission-critical scientific opportunities and public health needs. Across all scientific and disease areas, programs are tailored to the different requirements of basic, translational, and clinical research. The Institute continues to place a high priority on maintaining an adequate number of competing research project grants to sustain productive research teams, support new investigators, and encourage innovative research. NINDS evaluates the mission relevance of all institute initiatives and of all requests to submit applications for large investigator-initiated projects. The Institute reviews programs in consultation with members of the NINDS Advisory Council and other outside experts, and the results inform decisions concerning future program directions and funding. Intramural Research and Research Management and Support receive modest increases to help offset the cost of pay and other increases.

FY2010 Justification by Activity Detail

Channels, Synapses, and Circuits:

Ion channels, synapses, and circuits of interacting nerve cells are fundamental components of the nervous system. NINDS supports research on how channels, synapses, and circuits operate in the healthy nervous system in the adult and developing brain and on neurological disorders in which they play a major role. The program encompasses basic, translational, and clinical research, all with ultimate goal of advancing treatment and prevention. Epilepsy is among the common disorders in which channels, synapses, and brain circuits are a major focus, and the Institute continues its longstanding research program that has contributed to many advances in epilepsy treatment over the years. In March 2007, the NINDS, working closely with non-governmental organizations and the scientific community, held a major conference "Curing Epilepsy II."  The conference assessed progress against the Epilepsy Benchmarks, which arose from the first "Curing Epilepsy" conference in 2000. The Epilepsy Benchmark process brought NIH, the research community, and non-governmental organizations together to delineate specific goals and designate stewards to monitor progress. In 2008, again following extensive work with the epilepsy research and patient communities, NINDS disseminated updated benchmarks for epilepsy research that will guide research in the coming years.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate of $193.955 million for this program represents an increase of $2.236 million or 1.2 percent over the FY 2009 estimate. NINDS will continue to balance investigator-initiated and solicited research, including projects funded through the Institute's broad translational research and clinical trials programs. 

Neural Environment:

Fewer than 1 of 10 cells in the human brain are nerve cells. The non-neuronal cells maintain the local environment around nerve cells, fight infections, and control which molecules get into the brain through the blood-brain barrier, among other functions. Neurological disorders may result when non-neuronal cells are compromised or themselves become aggressors, as in cancer, or when viruses, bacteria, or parasites infect the nervous system. Stroke, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and infectious diseases, including NeuroAIDS are among the diseases in which non-neuronal cells play a central role. NINDS supports basic, translational, and clinical research on the neural environment, with the goal of improving prevention and treatment. The program's long track record of contributions to stroke treatment and prevention have had a major impact on the public health. In 2007, the NINDS Stroke Progress Review Group (PRG), which includes basic and clinical stroke researchers from throughout the U.S., reported a major mid-course review of stroke research. Among the actions that NINDS is taking to address PRG priorities in 2009, the Institute is funding a stroke preclinical research consortium to promote development of new therapies and soliciting research on mechanisms of functional recovery after stroke. Following a 2008 scientific meeting that NINDS convened on genome wide association studies in stroke, the Institute is funding a consortium of researchers to cooperatively pursue the emerging opportunity to identify genes that may hold clues to treating or preventing stroke. Among other activities related to the neural environment in 2008, NINDS solicited research on the dispersal of brain tumor cells in the brain, which is a key problem limiting the success of treatments.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate of $387.501 million for this program represents an increase of $4.470 million or 1.2 percent over the FY 2009 estimate. NINDS will continue to rely on a balance of solicited and investigator-initiated research, including research through the Institute's broad translational research and clinical trials programs. NINDS is increasing support for research on cancer in the nervous system through ongoing investigator-initiated basic, translational, and clinical research programs and through initiatives, including joint efforts with NCI, such as the pediatric and adult brain tumor consortia. Continuing programs, also in collaboration with NCI, include joint intramural research on brain tumors, solicitations for research on brain tumor dispersal, and translational research centers focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of brain tumors. NINDS-led solicitations continuing in FY 2010 also focus on the mechanisms of functional recovery after stroke, stroke genetics, neurological aspects of HIV, understanding and preventing brain tumor dispersal, and angiogenesis in the nervous system. 

Neurodegeneration:

For many neurodegenerative disorders, risk increases in older people. So, these diseases present an increasing challenge to the U.S. as our population distribution ages, and forestalling the impact of these diseases by even a few additional years would have a major impact on public health. Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementias, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease are among the neurodegenerative diseases that affect adults. NINDS has made major contributions to research in these areas, and the Institute continues to support basic, translational, and clinical research to improve treatment and prevention. These include, for example, the Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease Centers of Excellence, and the Committee to Identify Neuroprotective Agents for Parkinson's (CINAPS) and Neuroprotection Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease (NET-PD) programs, which together select, develop, and test drugs that slow neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. One crucial insight from neurodegeneration research is the recognition that shared mechanisms contribute to multiple neurodegenerative diseases, and that similar therapeutic strategies may be effective for different disorders. This continues to be a major priority for NINDS research. The Institute is also taking steps to coordinate research that will take advantage of new opportunities to understand how multiple genes interact with the environment to cause neurodegeneration.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate for this program is $202.615 million, an increase of $2.337 million or 1.2 percent over the FY 2009 estimate. NINDS neurodegeneration research will continue to balance investigator-initiated research and solicited research, including projects funded through the Institute's broad translational research and clinical trials programs. Continuing neurodegeneration program efforts include the Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease Centers of Excellence, the CINAPS (Committee to Identify Neuroprotective Agents for Parkinson's disease) program to develop drugs for Parkinson's, and NET-PD (the NIH Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease). The Institute also plans to continue to support genetic studies of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders through the NINDS Human Genetics Repository and other efforts. A solicitation on advanced tools and technologies for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders continues in 2010.

Portrait of a Program: Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease Centers of Excellence
FY 2009 Level: $22.00 million
FY 2010 Level: $22.000 million
Change: $0.000M

In 1997, Congress passed and the President signed into law The Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Disease Research Act of 1997 (P.L. 105-78), which directed NINDS to create research centers for Parkinson's disease.  Prior to act's passage, NINDS had recognized the need for centers and issued a Request for Applications (RFA).  The Institute funded three centers just after the act became law, and a second RFA funded eight additional Centers.  With subsequent renewals of the program, the Institute supports a total of 13 Centers plus a shared Parkinson's Disease Data Organizing Center.  All of the Udall Centers conduct research to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders and to better understand what causes the disease.

Since the program began, NINDS has been committed to continuous improvement of its scientific excellence.  Annual meetings foster cooperation among centers.  To enhance clinical research, NINDS increased the budget cap from $1 million to $1.5 million yearly direct costs beginning in 2003 for centers that include projects that meet the NIH definition for patient-oriented research.  In 2004, NINDS established the Parkinson's Disease Data and Organizing Center (PD-DOC), which facilitates inter-institutional clinical research among the Udall Centers and the greater Parkinson's disease research community by providing specific shared resources, including a central database. 

In 2007, a working group of the National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council presented recommendations arising from an independent expert evaluation of the Udall Centers program commissioned by NINDS.  Following analysis of extensive data, the report confirmed that the centers have had a significant impact on Parkinson's disease research.  Among the strengths of the program, the evaluation noted support for investigators with a wide range of backgrounds, contributions to research training, multidisciplinary research, collaboration fostered by the annual meetings, and excellent support by NINDS staff.  The report also included specific recommendations for enhancing the program and tracking progress. NINDS has already implemented some recommendations, including the creation of a coordinating committee of center directors, and will attend to others as the Institute renews the program through a solicitation issued in fiscal year 2009, for funding of grants in 2010.

Neurogenetics:

Gene defects cause hundreds of diseases that affect the nervous system, with symptoms that may be evident early in development or emerge later, at any stage of life. Neurogenetic disorders include the ataxias, Down syndrome, dystonia, lysosomal storage diseases (which include Batten disease and the mucopolysaccharidoses), muscular dystrophies, peripheral neuropathies, Rett syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, and Tourette syndrome, among many others. Genetics also contributes to autism, which continues to be a high priority for NINDS.   Research has identified hundreds of gene defects that are responsible for diseases, leading to better diagnostics, animal models for testing therapies, and rationally designed interventions that are now showing promise in animals and beginning to enter clinical testing. Identifying gene defects that cause disease, and translating insights from those discoveries into therapies continues to be a major priority for NINDS. Increasingly, new technologies also enable "whole genome screens" that reveal multiple genes that contribute to the susceptibility and progression of common neurological disorders, including stroke, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. This has become another major area of research that NINDS supports through various mechanisms and resources, including the NINDS Human Genetics Repository. In addition to common resources, investigator initiated research, and targeted solicitations, the NINDS scientific workshops catalyze research on neurogenetic disorders, often organized in cooperation with patient voluntary groups and other parts of the NIH, including the Office of Rare Diseases. In 2009, NINDS scientific workshops focus on diverse topics including,translational research in the muscular dystrophies, whole genome screening in stroke, delivery of gene based therapeutics to the nervous system, and the shared neurobiology of autism. NINDS issued a solicitation on translational research for neuromuscular diseases in 2009.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate of $204.317 million for this program represents an increase of $2.356 million or 1.2 percent over the FY 2009 estimate. NINDS will continue investigator initiated grants and targeted activities in neurogenetics, including projects funded through the Institute's broad translational research and clinical trials programs. NINDS is increasing support for its autism research program, which includes investigator initiated research on the neurological basis of autism and related disorders and potential therapeutic strategies, the Autism Centers for Excellence, and targeted solicitations, including joint initiatives with NIMH, NICHD and other parts of NIH. Among the continuing autism activities for FY2010 is a program announcement on the shared neurobiology of autism and fragile X syndrome.  Other program announcements that continue through 2010 solicit research on generalized and focal dystonias, on translational research for neuromuscular diseases (including muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), and on priorities of the ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) research plan, which the NIH developed in cooperation with non-governmental organizations. 

Repair and Plasticity:

NINDS supports extensive research on spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and on repairing damage to the nervous system from disease or trauma. This includes longstanding support for the study of neural stem cells and for research on the brain's innate capacity to adapt through "plasticity."  The continuing NINDS Neural Prosthesis program has pioneered research on devices that restore nervous system function lost to injury or disease, with current emphasis areas that include developing a new generation of devices that take signals directly from the brain and improving technology for deep brain stimulation, which is demonstrated effective or shows promise for several neurological disorders. Stimulated by the high rate of traumatic brain injury among U.S. military personnel, NINDS has enhanced coordination of TBI research within NIH and across the several Federal Agencies that support such research, including the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. Recent trans-agency collaborative workshops have focused on TBI classification and on combination therapies for TBI, the latter followed by NINDS collaboration with NICHD on a solicitation for research on multi-drug combinations to promote neurological recovery in TBI. The Institute also led a major 2008 workshop on the special opportunities and challenges in confronting TBI induced by blast injury, with extensive cooperation with the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs. Among other activities in 2008, NINDS renewed funding for the Facilities of Research Excellence in Spinal Cord Injury (FORE SCI) contract program, which address critical needs for spinal cord injury research, and solicited research on human pluripotent stem cell research using non-embryonic sources.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate of $157.468 million for this program represents an increase of $1.816 million or 1.2 percent over the FY 2009 estimate. NINDS continues to balance investigator-initiated research and solicitations. Solicitations continuing in 2010 focus on human pluripotent stem cell research using non-embryonic sources and on advanced technology for deep brain stimulation in movement disorders. In 2010, the Institute will also solicit translational and pilot clinical studies for advanced neural prosthetics through milestone-gated funding mechanisms. 

Systems and Cognitive Neuroscience:

Systems of nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord, and body control learning, memory, attention, language, thinking, emotion, movement, the sleep-wake cycle, pain perception, feeding, and other complex behaviors. NINDS supports basic research on how these systems of nerve cells carry out these functions and on counteracting the disruptive effects of neurological disorders, including stroke, trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases, on cognition and other complex behaviors. Migraine and other chronic pain conditions, which are very prevalent disorders, are an important area emphasis in this program. As the largest NIH supporter of research on pain, NINDS is a leader of the NIH Pain Consortium, which promotes collaboration among the NIH institutes and centers that address pain. Among recent activities in conjunction with the Pain Consortium, NINDS is participating in a 2009 solicitation on central nervous system intersections of drug addiction, chronic pain, and analgesia.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate of $193.157 million for this program represents an increase of $2.226 million or 1.2 percent from the FY 2009 estimate. NINDS continues to balance investigator initiated research and solicitations, including projects funded through the Institute's broad translational research and clinical trials programs. Because of the high prevalence of chronic pain conditions and the opportunities emerging from basic neuroscience, including insights about how mechanisms that underlie learning and memory contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain, NINDS will also focus initiatives on pain and continue to work with the NIH Pain Consortium and the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience on this cross-cutting issue.

Technology Development, Infrastructure, and Resources:

NINDS programs foster preclinical therapeutics development, provide research resources, promote research on minority health and health disparities, and support clinical trials. In 2009, NINDS renewed the Cooperative Program in Translational Research, which supports milestone driven projects to develop therapies for any neurological disorder up to the point of receiving FDA approval for first testing in people. Continuing NINDS clinical trials programs support research on many diseases, from pilot studies to the planning and execution of major phase III multi-site clinical trials. The Institute has recently developed two new networks to expedite clinical trials. The Clinical Research Collaboration (CRC) engages community physicians in clinical trials to speed clinical research through enhanced recruitment of participants, minimize costs, improve access to clinical trials for diverse patients, and encourage the transfer of research results to clinical practice in community settings. The CRC has developed central data and statistical coordinating resources, trained and certified community physicians, set up a web site that enables physicians and patients to find active studies, and is now conducting its first clinical trials, as well as collecting clinically characterized samples for genetic studies. The Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials (NETT), which focuses on stroke, head and spinal cord trauma, status epilepticus (continuous seizures), and other neurological emergencies, has also developed all required resources, including clinical sites and coordinating centers, and is also now beginning to conduct clinical trials.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate for this program of $67.744 million represents an increase of $781 thousand or 1.2 percent over the FY 2009 estimate. The Cooperative Program in Translational Research was renewed in 2009 and is continuing in 2010. This broad program provides milestone-gated funding for investigator-initiated projects from academic and small business laboratories to develop therapies for any disease within the NINDS mission. Among other major efforts continuing in 2010, the NINDS is advancing drugs from the SMA (spinal muscular atrophy) Project through preclinical development and planning for the transition to human clinical testing when that is appropriate. The Anticonvulsant Screening Program, the Specialized Neuroscience Research Programs (SNRPs), Clinical Research Collaboration (CRC) and Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials (NETT), research cores are among the other technology, infrastructure, and resource programs major programs continuing in 2010.  NINDS also plans to develop a medicinal chemistry resource in FY 2010 to support drug development in academic laboratories.  

Portrait of a Program: NINDS Cooperative Program in Translational Research
FY 2009 Level: $12.00 million
FY 2010 Level: $12.000 million
Change: $0.000M

Translating insights from neuroscience into therapies for people is a critical aspect of the NINDS mission. The NINDS Cooperative Program in Translational Research supports the extensive preclinical development that is necessary to bring interventions to readiness for clinical testing. The program, which funded its first grants in 2003, supports investigator proposed projects to develop drug, biologic, or device based therapeutics for any disease within the Institute's mission. The proposals are rigorously peer reviewed against criteria tailored to therapy development, and funding is milestone-gated, as are therapy development programs in industry. Specific grant and cooperative agreement mechanisms within the program fund projects that range from small two-year preliminary studies through large multi-institute consortia, all of which are on a clearly delineated path to develop therapies.

Since the program began, NINDS has monitored results and taken steps to improve effectiveness. Among the changes, the program expanded efforts to engage small business participation, added a mechanism to support translational resource centers, and discontinued a training component of the program that was not successful. As the program is renewed in 2009 and moves into 2010, the Institute is making changes that are responsive to the recommendations from the Translational Advisory Panel of the NINDS Strategic Planning effort. The panel's experts in therapy development from industry, academia, and government analyzed extensive data from this and other complementary NINDS translational efforts. Among the changes, the Institute is establishing an Office of Translational Research led by an Associate Director who will report to the NINDS director and oversee this and other Institute translational programs. The Institute is also taking actions to improve milestones and their monitoring, to increase outreach to the community, to augment opportunities for staff training in translational research, and to engage experts from industry and academia in guiding the overall program.

Despite the formidable challenges of developing therapeutics for neurological disorders projects from the Cooperative Program in Translational Research are beginning to yield interventions that are ready for clinical testing, the IND (Investigational New Drug) approvals now emerging from the program. NINDS has terminated projects for failure to meet milestones, and the Institute will continue to monitor progress of each project and of the overall program, which will be of increasingly importance to the Institute's mission as more opportunities emerge from the rapid progress in basic and clinical neuroscience.

Intramural Research:

The NINDS Intramural Research Program conducts basic, translational, and clinical research on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland, which is the largest community of neuroscientists in the world. Among the unique resources of the NIH campus, the Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Center is a hospital totally dedicated to clinical research and the NIH Porter Neuroscience Research Center integrates neuroscience across NIH institutes and disciplinary boundaries. Ongoing Intramural activities that respond to high institute priorities include a joint brain tumor program with the National Cancer Institute, the Suburban Hospital and Washington Hospital Center Stroke centers, pioneering research on neural stem cells, investigations of biomarkers to accelerate therapy development for multiple sclerosis, translating gene findings to therapies for neurogenetic diseases, and research on the consequences of head trauma in military personnel. The Intramural Research Program has also been a leader in development of novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategies for detecting normal and abnormal function of the brain. Based on the program's internationally recognized success in the development of MRI that uses a much more powerful (7 Tesla) magnet than conventional MRI, in 2009 NINDS Intramural is leading an effort to advance imaging with an even more powerful (11.7 Tesla) device, which promises to provide even greater capability to non-invasively image brain structure and function. 

Budget Policy: The FY 2010 budget estimate of $150.542 million for this program represents an increase of $2.225 million or 1.5 percent over the FY 2009 estimate. The program continues to re-vitalize clinical research with the recruitment of investigators spanning clinical research to translational research. New research teams are focusing on neurosurgical approaches to treating brain tumors; neuroimmunology aimed at treating multiple sclerosis; mechanisms of virus infection and replication in the brain; and basic mechanisms responsible for hereditary spastic paraplegias.

Research Management and Support (RMS):

NINDS RMS activities provide administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support in the review, award, and monitoring of research grants, training awards and research and development contracts. RMS functions also encompass strategic planning, coordination, and evaluation of the Institute's programs, regulatory compliance, international coordination, and liaison with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public.

Budget Policy:  The FY 2010 budget estimate of $55.466 million represents an increase of $954 thousand or 1.8 percent over the FY 2009 estimate.


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Budget Authority by Object

Budget Authority by Object
 FY 2008
Estimate
FY 2010
P B
Increase or
Decrease
Total compensable workyears:   
Full-time employment48849810
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours110
Average ES salary$160,900$164,100$3,200
Average GM/GS grade11.811.80.0
Average GM/GS salary$92,100$94,0001,900
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207)$109,400$111,6002,200
Average salary of ungraded positions122,800125,3002500

OBJECT CLASSES
F Y 2009 EstimateF Y 2010 EstimateIncrease or Decrease
Personnel Compensation:   
11.1 Full-time permanent$27,651,000$28,974,000$1,323,000
11.3 Other than full-time permanent19,716,00020,673,000957,000
11.5 Other personnel compensation1,305,0001,367,00062,000
11.7 Military personnel704,000738,00034,000
11.8 Special personnel services payments6,970,0007,309,000339,000
Total, Personnel Compensation56,346,00059,061,0002,715,000
12.0 Personnel benefits13,335,00013,977,000642,000
12.2 Military personnel benefits558,000585,00027,000
13.0 Benefits for former personnel000
Subtotal, Pay Costs70,239,00073,623,0003,384,000
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons3,878,0003,821,000(57,000)
22.0 Transportation of things242,000239,000(3,000)
23.1 Rental payments to GSA000
23.2 Rental payments to others119,000116,000(3,000)
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges1,026,0001,009,000(17,000)
24.0 Printing and reproduction330,000323,000(7,000)
25.1 Consulting services4,961,0004,966,0005,000
25.2 Other services10,506,00010,362,000(144,000)
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts129,183,000129,879,000696,000
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities1,650,0001,629,000(21,000)
25.5 Research and development contracts33,653,00034,715,0001,062,000
25.6 Medical care649,000641,000(8,000)
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment10,688,00010,494,000(194,000)
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons000
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services191,290,000192,686,0001,396,000
26.0 Supplies and materials8,773,0008,663,000(110,000)
31.0 Equipment11,068,00010,926,000(142,000)
32.0 Land and structures000
33.0 Investments and loans000
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions1,306,375,0001,321,335,00014,960,000
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities000
43.0 Interest and dividends4,0004,0000
44.0 Refunds000
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs1,523,105,0001,539,122,00016,017,000
Total Budget Authority by Object1,593,344,0001,612,745,00019,401,000

Includes F T E's which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research


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Salaries and Expenses

Salaries and Expenses
OBJECT CLASSESF Y 2009 EstimateF Y 2010 PBIncrease or DecreasePercent Change
Personnel Compensation:    
  Full-time permanent (11.1)$27,651,000$28,974,000$1,323,0004.8
  Other than full-time permanent (11.3)19,716,00020,673,000957,0004.9
  Other personnel compensation (11.5)1,305,0001,367,00062,0004.8
  Military personnel (11.7)704,000738,00034,0004.8
  Special personnel services payments (11.8)6,970,0007,309,000339,0004.9
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9)56,346,00059,061,0002,715,0004.8
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1)13,335,00013,977,000642,0004.8
Military personnel benefits (12.2)558,000585,00027,0004.8
Benefits to former personnel (13.0)0000.0
Subtotal, Pay Costs70,239,00073,623,0003,384,0004.8
Travel (21.0)3,878,0003,821,000(57,000)-1.5
Transportation of things (22.0)242,000239,000(3,000)-1.2
Rental payments to others (23.2)119,000116,000(3,000)-2.5
Communications, utilities and     
  miscellaneous charges (23.3)1,026,0001,009,000(17,000)-1.7
Printing and reproduction (24.0)330,000323,000(7,000)-2.1
Other Contractual Services:    
  Advisory and assistance services (25.1)4,961,0004,966,0005,0000.1
  Other services (25.2)10,506,00010,362,000(144,000)-1.4
  Purchases from government accounts (25.3)90,531,00091,222,000691,0000.8
  Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4)1,650,0001,629,000(21,000)-1.3
  Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7)10,688,00010,494,000(194,000)-1.8
  Subsistence and support of persons (25.8)0000.0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services118,336,000118,673,000337,0000.3
Supplies and materials (26.0)8,747,0008,637,000(110,000)-1.3
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs132,678,000132,818,000140,0000.1
Total, Administrative Costs202,917,000206,441,0003,524,0001.7


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Authorizing Legislation

Authorizing Legislation
 PHS Act/
Other Citation
U.S. Code
Citation
2009 Amount
Authorized
F Y 2009
Estimate
2010 Amount
Authorized
F Y 2010
PB
Research and InvestigationSection 30142§241Indefinate Indefinate 
National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Section 402(a)42§281Indefinate Indefinate 
Total, Budget Authority   1,593,344,000 1,612,745,000


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Appropriations History

Appropriations History
Fiscal YearBudget Estimate to CongressHouse AllowanceSenate AllowanceAppropriation     1/
20011,050,412,000 2/1,185,767,0001,189,425,0001,176,482,000
Rescission   (383,000)
20021,316,448,000 2/1,306,321,0001,352,055,0001,328,188,000
Rescission   (1,522,000)
20031,432,305,0001,432,305,0001,466,005,0001,466,005,000
Rescission   (9,529,000)
20041,468,926,0001,468,326,0001,510,926,0001,510,776,000
Rescission   (9,569,000)
20051,545,623,0001,545,623,0001,569,100,0001,539,448,000
Rescission   (12,675,000)
20061,550,260,0001,550,260,0001,591,924,0001,550,260,000
Rescission   (1,503,000)
20071,524,750,0001,524,750,0001,537,703,0001,534,757,000
Rescission   (0)
20081,537,019,0001,559,106,0001,573,268,0001,571,353,000
Rescission   (27,452,000)
20091,545,397,0001,598,521,0001,588,405,0001,591,344,000
Rescission   0
20101,612,745,000   

1/ Reflects enacted supplementals, rescissions, and reappropriations.

2/ Excludes funds for HIV/AIDS research activities consolidated in the NIH Office of AIDS Research.


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Detail of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTE)

Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (F T E's)
OFFICE/DIVISIONF Y 2008 ActualF Y 2009 EstimateF Y 2010 PB
Office of the Director484446
Division of Extramural Research847878
Division of Intramural Research347336343
Division of Translational Research91212
Division of Clinical Research111313
Division of Minority Health Research555
Total504488498
Includes F T E's which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
F T E's supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements(2)(2)(2)

 

 

Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (F T E's) continued
FISCAL YEARAverage GM/GS Grade
200610.7
200713.2
200811.8
200911.8
201011.8


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Detail of Positions

Detail of Positions
GRADEF Y 2008 ActualF Y 2009 EstimateF Y 2010 PB
Total, ES Positions222
Total, ES Salary307,136321,800328,200
GM/GS-15353333
GM/GS-14413940
GM/GS-13727377
GS-12554750
GS-11413838
GS-10555
GS-9403838
GS-8212121
GS-7668
GS-6111
GS-5000
GS-4333
GS-3111
GS-2000
GS-1111
 Subtotal322306316
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):   
Assistant Surgeon General000
Director Grade666
Senior Grade111
Full Grade000
Senior Assistant Grade000
Assistant Grade000
 Subtotal777
Ungraded191191191
Total permanent positions325309319
Total positions, end of year522505516
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year504488498
Average ES salary153,568160,900164,100
Average GM/GS grade11.811.811.8
Average GM/GS salary87,94292,10094,000

Includes F T E's which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.


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New Positions Requested

New Positions Requested
 FY 2010
 GradeNumberAnnual Salary
Health Scientist AdministratorGS-143$106,145
Staff ScientistGS-122$85,281
Research FellowGS-95$50,408
Total Requested 10 

Last Modified May 10, 2012