The National Institutes of Health (NIH) invite applications for specialized Centers to accelerate application of the latest advances in human stem cell biology for the development of novel diagnostic or therapeutic uses, and of preclinical studies employing human stem cells in animal models of disease. The P50 mechanism will be used to create three Centers of Excellence in Translational Human Stem Cell Research. These centers will bring together basic stem cell biologists, researchers and clinicians with disease-specific expertise, physicians and surgeons skilled in novel modes of cell delivery, and investigators experienced in developing and assessing animal models of human diseases to create new research teams, and to conduct hitherto-unexplored projects such as preclinical studies for cell-based therapy. This initiative targets critical gaps in research that are delaying the conversion of new discoveries to new therapies, and particularly encourages the formation of new, multidisciplinary teams involving scientists that may not have worked in the human stem cell field and those that incorporate the full spectrum of expertise and experience in translational medical research. We anticipate that such research will ultimately lead to innovative approaches for the prevention, treatment, and cure of disease, and accelerate the translation of basic scientific discoveries in the laboratory to new treatments for patients. The NIH intends to commit up to $4.5 million dollars in FY 2005 to fund three new Centers. Eligible organizations include domestic public or private institutions. There is no limit on the number of applications from an institution or individual.