The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is interested in promoting collaborations among junior investigators (Postdoctoral Fellows through Assistant Professors, or equivalent) to stimulate translational research in the field of epilepsy. This exploratory grants program is being issued in conjunction with the White House-initiated, NIH-sponsored conference, "Curing Epilepsy: Focus on the Future." To this end the NINDS invites exploratory/developmental research grant applications (R21) in patient-oriented research, developmental neurobiology, genetics, advanced technology, imaging, pharmacotherapeutics, or other research areas, which are likely to lead to the cure of epilepsy (defined as "the prevention of epilepsy before it occurs in people at risk, and the cessation of seizures without therapy-associated side effects in those who develop the disease"). Emphasis will be placed on cross-disciplinary collaborations, novel hypotheses, and unique approaches in applying fundamental neurobiological concepts to epilepsy research. Special consideration will be given to proposals that enhance the application of scientific knowledge to the understanding and treatment of the disorder. This initiative requires collaborations of two or more junior investigators at different institutions, or in different laboratories within the same institution. Investigators already working together at the same department are not eligible.