The Purpose of this Request for Applications (RFA) is to establish a Network for Cardiothoracic Surgical Investigations in Cardiovascular Medicine that will foster rigorous scientific evaluation of newer surgical techniques, technologies, devices, and innovative pharmaceutical and bioengineered products to ensure that the public has access to the best procedures determined by careful assessment. This will be accomplished through an infrastructure for multicenter collaborative clinical research to evaluate surgical and interventional therapies directed at cardiovascular disease. The participation of surgeons and their colleagues in allied specialties in a coordinated national cardiothoracic surgical network will promulgate the use of evidence-based medicine and inform the use of new interventions in surgical practices. Results of network studies are expected to be widely disseminated, to improve the scientific basis of care for affected individuals and to serve to inform future larger clinical trials. The Network will also serve as a clinical trials training ground for fellows and junior faculty.