Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. With the aging of the population, the number of stroke patients in the US is likely to grow. There is a critical need to develop safe and effective therapies to improve the clinical management of stroke patients. Thus, the NHLBI and the NINDS invite research applications that will improve the understanding of brain hemostasis, identify new molecular targets, explore promising agents, and develop novel therapeutics for cerebral ischemia. This program intends to support basic, translational, and early clinical studies.