This FOA provides for planning grants for clinical trials related to type 1 diabetes. It is expected that these planning grants will lead to clinical trials to test interventions designed to improve glycemic control and/or to treat or reduce diabetes complications. The intent of this initiative is to improve the management and treatment of individuals with type 1 diabetes in the United States. If successful, the results of the future clinical trials should be of practical importance to clinical management and applicable immediately. The purpose of this FOA is not to validate new technologies or test new therapeutics.