The purpose of this open competition Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to stimulate the translation of innovative therapies suitable for children with brain tumors from the laboratory to early phase clinical testing. To achieve this goal, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) intends to continue a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) program. The NCI will support one multi-center clinical trials group (a “Consortium”) that will be responsible for timely conduct of the Phase 1, Phase 2, and pilot studies evaluating novel treatment approaches relevant to the pediatric brain tumor population. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), is co-sponsoring this initiative because of a shared interest with NCI in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. NINDS will be involved in coordinating PBTC activities across other NIH-supported normal and disease-oriented brain imaging Networks (including the NCI-supported adult brain tumor consortium) as well as in aspects related to the neurocognitive, quality-of-life impact of certain treatments on long-term survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Each application submitted in response to this FOA must include plans for (i) the PBTC Operations and Statistics/Data Centers and (ii) up to seven member institutions. The proposed PBTC must be able to (i) conduct Phase 1, Phase 2, and pilot clinical trials of novel treatment approaches for children with brain tumors, focusing whenever appropriate on clinical trials that require the specialized abilities of the PBTC collaborating experienced neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, radiation oncologists and neuroimagers; and (ii) conduct and/or support laboratory studies related to PBTC clinical trials that may provide information relevant to the success or failure of therapy.