This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages grant applications for Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Cooperative Research Projects (U01s). The mission of the CounterACT U01 program is to develop new and improved therapeutics for chemical threats. Chemical threats are toxic chemicals that could be used in a terrorist attack or accidentally released from industrial production, storage or shipping. They include traditional chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and pesticides. Applicants are encouraged to contact the Program Officials listed in this FOA to determine if their proposed threat agent(s) or countermeasure(s) is of high program priority for one of the participating Institutes. The scope of the research to be supported includes target and candidate identification and characterization, through candidate optimization and demonstration of in vivo efficacy, through Investigational New Drug (IND) submission when appropriate. Each project must include milestones that create discrete go or no-go decision points in a progressive translational study plan.