The National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), invite applications for P50 Research Center Grants for Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPOREs). The program will fund 5-year P50 SPORE grants to support state-of-the-art investigator-initiated translational research that will contribute to improved prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of an organ-specific cancer (or a related group of cancers). SPOREs are expected not only to conduct a wide spectrum of research activities, but also to contribute significantly to the development of specialized shared resource core facilities (cores), improved research model systems, and collaborative research projects with other institutions. The research supported through this program must be translational in nature and must always be focused upon knowledge of human biology stemming from research using cellular, molecular, structural, biochemical, and/or genetic experimental approaches with the goal of a translational human endpoint within the 5 year term of the grant. In addition, SPOREs must include both a Developmental Research Program for pilot studies and a Career Development Program to foster careers in organ-based translational science.