The NINDS Advanced Postdoctoral Career Transition Award to Promote Diversity issued by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), is designed to increase the number of highly trained early career investigators from diverse backgrounds underrepresented in neuroscience research. Faculty from diverse backgrounds represent only 5% of the tenure-stream neuroscience faculty (2009 Survey Report Neuroscience Departments and Programs). This opportunity provides individuals from diverse backgrounds with strong training in neuroscience with the resources and tools that will help facilitate a transition to a stable and productive independent research position. Individuals from diverse backgrounds underrepresented in neuroscience research are eligible for support under this award if they have doctoral research degrees (Ph.D., P.h.D./M.D. or equivalent) and between 2 and 5 years of postdoctoral research experience at the time of application. The primary objectives of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) are to: (1) assist talented underrepresented scientists to transition from postdoctoral training to a secure, independent research position and (2) enhance the conditions that promote establishing a strong and innovative independent program of research. NINDS support for K22 program relies equally on scientific merit and programmatic considerations. Consequently, we strongly recommend potential applicants speak with program officials at NINDS before preparing an application. NINDS will not support projects, regardless of the results of merit review, if they do not fulfill current programmatic priorities at NINDS.