This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) applications from small business concerns (SBCs) that seek additional funding to support exploratory clinical trials for projects that were previously funded by NIH SBIR Phase II awards. The trials must focus on products related to the mission and goals of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and may evaluate drugs, biologics, devices, or diagnostics, as well as surgical, behavioral or rehabilitation therapies. Since conducting the clinical trials needed for commercialization may be capital-intensive, the FOA aims to facilitate the transition of SBIR Phase II projects to the commercialization stage by promoting partnerships between NIH’s SBIR awardees and third-party investors and/or strategic partners. Consistent with the goals of this funding initiative and as required by the SF424 instructions for all SBIR Phase II applications, applicants must submit a Commercialization Plan, which should include details on any independent third-party investor funding that has already been secured or is anticipated during the project period. It is expected that the level of this independent third-party funding will equal or exceed the NINDS funds being requested throughout the SBIR Phase IIB project period.