This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages grant applications for Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Cooperative Research Projects (U01s). The mission of the CounterACT U01 program is to develop new and improved therapeutics for chemical threats. Chemical threats are toxic chemicals that could be used in a terrorist attack or accidentally released from industrial production, storage or shipping. They include traditional chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin and VX, and toxic industrial chemicals and pesticides such as cyanide, chlorine, parathion, and sodium fluoroacetate. The scope of the research to be supported includes basic target and candidate identification and characterization studies, through candidate optimization and demonstration of in vivo efficacy, through Investigational New Drug (IND) submission and Phase 1 clinical trials when appropriate. Each project must include milestones that create discrete go or no-go decision points in a progressive translational study plan.