This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), the “Fogarty International Research Collaboration – Basic Biomedical (FIRCA-BB) Research Award” program, facilitates collaborative basic biomedical research between scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and investigators in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC). All non-AIDS-related biomedical research topics that are supported by the NIH, including basic, clinical, and applied research that does not involve behavioral or social science topics and techniques, are eligible for inclusion under the FIRCA-BB program. For behavioral and social science (BSS) research, see the companion Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), the “Fogarty International Research Collaboration – Behavioral and Social Sciences (FIRCA-BSS) Research Award” program, (PAR-08-223). Special consideration will be given to proposed research that addresses significant global health problems, particularly those of high relevance to an LMIC country or region. This FOA includes an additional review criterion of “Research Capacity Building” (see Section V.2. Application Review and Selection Process).