Participating Institutes and Centers (ICs) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) invite applications for R01 awards to support Research Partnerships for Improving Functional Outcomes (RPIFO) for basic, applied, and translational multi-disciplinary research that addresses important biological, behavioral, medical, and/or psychosocial research problems related to rehabilitation or health maintenance of individuals with acute or chronic disease. In the context of this program, a 'partnership' is a multi-disciplinary research team that applies an integrative, systems approach to develop knowledge and/or methods to improve functioning, promote health, and increase participation in community life. The partnership must include appropriate individuals with clinical expertise related to rehabilitation in combination with biomedical, psychosocial-behavioral, engineering, epidemiological, and/or health services researchers. The Principal Investigator (PI) also serves as the project manager and must be capable of leading the proposed research and partnership. An RPIFO may propose outcomes-directed, developmental, discovery-driven, translational or hypothesis-driven research at universities, national laboratories, medical or nursing schools, large or small businesses, or other public and private entities or combinations of these entities. It is expected that an RPIFO will have a well-defined, public health-related goal that can be assessed based on objective milestones.