The purpose of this FOA is to advance the study of emotion across a broad range of areas outlined below. The study of emotion encompasses a wide range of physiological, psychological, social, cognitive, and developmental phenomena. Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS) activity in the origins, expression, regulation and modulation of emotion are important objects of study, as is the contribution of emotional and motivational systems to cognitive faculties such as perception, attention, learning, memory, and motor control. The study of emotion includes investigations of overt behaviors (such as aggression or withdrawal), interpersonal relationships, communication and decision making, and the environmental circumstances and experiences that shape and elicit emotions. Emotion research can also include the study of licit and illicit psychoactive substances that alter mood states, and conversely, the study of how emotional and mood states can predispose to, or modulate the effects of, pain or alcohol and psychoactive substances. This FOA also encourages research on emotional reactions in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and the study of emotion as it relates to this disease or increased risk of this disease, including outcomes such as social relationships, health care provider relationships, adherence and others. These investigations may utilize human or animal subjects.