Insomnia Disorder affects approximately 10% of adults in the U.S. and results in decreased work and academic performance, increased risk of accidents, increased health care costs, and increased risk of depression and other mental disorders. Given the public health significance of this problem, the NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults was held in June, 2005. The resulting conference statement outlined what is currently known and identified important future directions for insomnia-related research. The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to encourage research that addresses the research needs outlined in this conference statement. Recommended areas for future research include genetic and neurobiologic mechanisms of insomnia, longitudinal studies of incidence and course of insomnia, improved measures of daytime functioning and quality of life resulting from insomnia, studies of insomnia in special populations, the impact of insomnia on the development of other disorders including depression, drug abuse, and chronic diseases, and the development and evaluation of treatment approaches and their dissemination. Research that translates basic science findings into novel clinical approaches is particularly encouraged.