The principal limitations in the field of proteomics are technological in nature. Proteomics, and the sub-discipline of glycomics, are rapidly developing, technology-intensive fields. Separations, mass spectrometry, microarray, bioinformatics, and other tools have advanced rapidly to support the explosive growth of biomedical applications in this area. However, technologies and methods remain largely inadequate to address the majority of meaningful biological problems, particularly with respect to quantitative and real time measurements. Continued intensive development of advanced tools is essential to meet two needs. First, improvements in basic bioanalytical technologies are essential to these endeavors. This includes but is not restricted to robotics, sample preparation and pre-fractionation, analytical separations, gel and array imaging, quantitation, mass spectrometry, intelligent automated data acquisition, and database searching. Second, improved informatics technologies are essential for the conversion of data into meaningful results and interaction models. Improved informatics tools will also facilitate the integration and synergistic development of the basic analytical tools mentioned above. Additionally, the translation of advances in proteomics to a clinical setting should be a priority.