This is a time-sensitive RFI directed toward determining how best to accelerate research in developmental neuroscience. Responses to this RFI should be pertinent to the interests of one or more of the NIH Neuroscience Blueprint Institutes listed above. Comments pertaining to normal and/or atypical nervous system development are encouraged. Neuroscience research is a unifying theme across many NIH Institutes and Centers. The NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research was launched in 2004 with 15 participating Institutes and Centers to provide a framework for coordinating research, and developing tools and resources which are broadly useful for advancing neuroscience research (http://neuroscienceblueprint.nih.gov/). To this end, the NIH is generating a series of focused initiatives designed to catalyze neuroscience research. In fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the Blueprint supported the creation and distribution of resources that are of broad utility to the entire neuroscience community. In fiscal years 2007-2009 the NIH Blueprint plans to address three specific, cross-cutting themes: neurodegeneration, neurodevelopment, and neuronal plasticity, respectively.