Additional information on FOAs PA-06-188, PA-06-267, and PA-06-268, Temporomandibular Joint and Muscle Disorders: Pathophysiological Mechanisms Linking Comorbid Conditions (R01) (R03) (R21) The prevalence of temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders and many other chronic painful conditions is higher in women than men. Women tend to seek medical attention for these disorders at a much higher rate than men. Studies suggest that estrogen may predispose women to a higher sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Clearly sex and gender influences will modify the sensitivity of individuals to painful stimuli and responses to analgesic therapies. The NIDCR recognizes these sex and gender aspects of pain and encourages the submission of applications that take these factors into consideration in studies of the comorbidities associated with TMJD.