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NINDS Dementia Information Page

Condensed from Dementia: Hope Through Research


Alzheimers Disease-Related Dementias: Research Challenges and Opportunities

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What is Dementia?

Dementia is not a specific disease. It is a descriptive term for a collection of symptoms that can be caused by a number of disorders that affect the brain. People with dementia have significantly impaired intellectual functioning that interferes with normal activities and relationships. They also lose their ability to solve problems and maintain emotional control, and they may experience personality changes and behavioral problems, such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations. While memory loss is a common symptom of dementia, memory loss by itself does not mean that a person has dementia. Doctors diagnose dementia only if two or more brain functions - such as memory and language skills -- are significantly impaired without loss of consciousness.  Some of the diseases that can cause symptoms of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington’s disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  Doctors have identified other conditions that can cause dementia or dementia-like symptoms including reactions to medications, metabolic problems and endocrine abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, infections, poisoning, brain tumors, anoxia or hypoxia (conditions in which the brain’s oxygen supply is either reduced or cut off entirely), and heart and lung problems.  Although it is common in very elderly individuals, dementia is not a normal part of the aging process.

Is there any treatment?

Drugs to specifically treat Alzheimer’s disease and some other progressive dementias are now available.  Although these drugs do not halt the disease or reverse existing brain damage, they can improve symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. This may improve an individual’s quality of life, ease the burden on caregivers, or delay admission to a nursing home. Many researchers are also examining whether these drugs may be useful for treating other types of dementia.  Many people with dementia, particularly those in the early stages, may benefit from practicing tasks designed to improve performance in specific aspects of cognitive functioning. For example, people can sometimes be taught to use memory aids, such as mnemonics, computerized recall devices, or note taking.

What is the prognosis?

There are many disorders that can cause dementia. Some, such as Alzheimer’s disease or Huntington’s disease, lead to a progressive loss of mental functions. But other types of dementia can be halted or reversed with appropriate treatment. People with moderate or advanced dementia typically need round-the-clock care and supervision to prevent them from harming themselves or others. They also may need assistance with daily activities such as eating, bathing, and dressing.

What research is being done?

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to dementia in laboratories at the NIH and also support additional dementia research through grants to major medical institutions across the country.  Current research focuses on many different aspects of dementia. This research promises to improve the lives of people affected by the dementias and may eventually lead to ways of preventing or curing these disorders.

NIH Patient Recruitment for Dementia Clinical Trials

Organizations

Column1 Column2
Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center (ADEAR)
National Institute on Aging
P.O. Box 8250
Silver Spring, MD   20907-8250
adear@nia.nih.gov
http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers
Tel: 1-800-438-4380
Fax: 301-495-3334

Alzheimer's Association
225 North Michigan Avenue
Floor 17
Chicago, IL   60601-7633
info@alz.org
http://www.alz.org
Tel: 312-335-8700 1-800-272-3900 (24-hour helpline) TDD: 312-335-5886
Fax: 866.699.1246

Alzheimer's Foundation of America
322 Eighth Avenue
7th Floor
New York, NY   10001
info@alzfdn.org
http://www.alzfdn.org
Tel: 866-AFA-8484 (232-8484)
Fax: 646-638-1546

Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation
57 West 57th Street
Suite 904
New York, NY   10019
info@alzdiscovery.org
http://www.alzdiscovery.org
Tel: 212-901-8000
Fax: 212-901-8010

Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration (AFTD)
Radnor Station Building #2 Suite 320
290 King of Prussia Road
Radnor, PA   19087
info@theaftd.org
http://www.theaftd.org
Tel: 267-514-7221 866-507-7222

BrightFocus Foundation
22512 Gateway Center Drive
Clarksburg, MD   20871
info@brightfocus.org
http://www.brightfocus.org/alzheimers/
Tel: 1- 800-437-2423
Fax: 301-258-9454

John Douglas French Alzheimer's Foundation
11620 Wilshire Blvd.
Suite 270
Los Angeles, CA   90025
http://www.jdfaf.org
Tel: 310-445-4650
Fax: 310-479-0516

Lewy Body Dementia Association
912 Killian Hill Road, S.W.
Lilburn, GA   30047
lbda@lbda.org
http://www.lbda.org
Tel: Telephone: 404-935-6444 LBD Caregiver Link: 800-539-9767
Fax: 480-422-5434

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
National Institutes of Health, DHHS
6001 Executive Blvd. Rm. 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD   20892-9663
nimhinfo@nih.gov
http://www.nimh.nih.gov
Tel: 301-443-4513/866-415-8051 301-443-8431 (TTY)
Fax: 301-443-4279

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
55 Kenosia Avenue
Danbury, CT   06810
orphan@rarediseases.org
http://www.rarediseases.org
Tel: 203-744-0100 Voice Mail 800-999-NORD (6673)
Fax: 203-798-2291

Related NINDS Publications and Information
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Prepared by:
Office of Communications and Public Liaison
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD 20892



NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient's medical history.

All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated.

Last updated June 11, 2014