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NINDS Arachnoiditis Information Page


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What is Arachnoiditis?

Arachnoiditis describes a pain disorder caused by the inflammation of the arachnoid, one of the membranes that surround and protect the nerves of the spinal cord.  The arachnoid can become inflamed because of an irritation from chemicals, infection from bacteria or viruses, as the result of direct injury to the spine, chronic compression of spinal nerves, or complications from spinal surgery or other invasive spinal procedures.  Inflammation can sometimes lead to the formation of scar tissue and adhesions, which cause the spinal nerves to “stick” together. If arachnoiditis begins to interfere with the function of one or more of these nerves, it can cause a number of symptoms, including numbness, tingling, and a characteristic stinging and burning pain in the lower back or legs.  Some people with arachnoiditis will have debilitating muscle cramps, twitches, or spasms.  It may also affect bladder, bowel, and sexual function.  In severe cases, arachnoiditis may cause paralysis of the lower limbs.

Is there any treatment?

Arachnoiditis remains a difficult condition to treat, and long-term outcomes are unpredictable.  Most treatments for arachnoiditis are focused on pain relief and the improvement of symptoms that impair daily function.  A regimen of pain management, physiotheraphy, exercise, and psychotheraphy is often recommended.  Surgical intervention is controversial since the outcomes are generally poor and provide only short-term relief.  Clinical trials of steroid injections and electrical stimulation are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments.

What is the prognosis?

Arachnoiditis is a disorder that causes chronic pain and neurological deficits and does not improve significantly with treatment.  Surgery may only provide temporary relief.  The outlook for someone with arachnoiditis is complicated by the fact that the disorder has no predictable pattern or severity of symptoms.

What research is being done?

Within the NINDS research programs, arachnoiditis is addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research.  NINDS vigorously pursues a research program seeking new treatments for pain and nerve damage with the ultimate goal of reversing debilitating conditions such as arachnoiditis. 

NIH Patient Recruitment for Arachnoiditis Clinical Trials

Organizations

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American Chronic Pain Association (ACPA)
P.O. Box 850
Rocklin, CA   95677-0850
ACPA@theacpa.org
http://www.theacpa.org
Tel: 916-632-0922 800-533-3231
Fax: 916-652-8190

 


Prepared by:
Office of Communications and Public Liaison
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD 20892



NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient's medical history.

All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated.

Last updated January 13, 2011